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17th c. - 19th c.
EUROPEAN COLONIZATIONS in ASIA

Map of Southeast Asia

French, Dutch and British vie for parts of India.
The Dutch role in INDONESIA begins in the 1602 forming of DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY, a conglomerate of smaller Dutch companies playing a major role in trade between the Malay Archipelago, China, Japan, India, Iran and the Cape of Good Hope.

By 1619 Dutchman, JAN PIETERSZOON COEN, begins DUTCH COLONIAL EMPIRE in the EAST INDIES at Batavia, Java, present day Jakarta, Indonesia. Dutch hold firmly established by 1641.

During approximately the same period, the British Colonization of INDIA is following the same path as the Dutch who preceded them.

Starting December 13, 1600, with charter for the ENGLISH EAST INDIA COMPANY granted by Queen Elizabeth I, the British company enjoys a monopoly for trade in India. By 1610 - 1611 they have established first factories and trading posts in- MADRAS and BOMBAY.

By 1761 British defeat French, gaining full colonial control of India and appointing 1st Governor General of India in 1774.

India rises again and again in revolt against British rule. SEPOY REBELLION of 1857 is an early example: Indian soldiers serving the British, but aggrieved by annexations and taxations, rose up in rebellion. The British put-down of the Sepoy Rebellion is remembered for the declarative message of their brutality, when they lashed rebellious Indian soldiers to the front of cannons.

The French, defeated by the British in India, still have interests elsewhere in Asia: INDO-CHINA, 1858-1884.

The year following India’s Sepoy Rebellion, French troops invade Vietnam in 1858 and take almost 30 years (till August 1884) to impose their colonial rule throughout Indochina, incorporating VIETNAM into French Indochina, and later adding CAMBODIA and LAOS.