FILIPINOS IN LOUISIANA
Are Louisiana Manila men Americans?
However, the Naturalization Act of 1790 granted the right of U.S. citizenship only to all "free white persons." This exception to citizenship would not apply to them until after the 1803 Louisiana Purchase. Therefore, at the very outset of their long American presence, Filipinos become party to the keystone issue of American national identity:
Who qualifies to belong? Who is an American? Who will have the rights of an American? Are the "Louisiana Manila men" Americans?