|William Edward Burghardt DuBois (1868-1963)
writer and sociologist, co-founder of The National Association for The Advancement of Colored People
DuBois was born in Great Barrington, Massachussetts, and attended Fisk and Harvard Universities, and the University of Berlin. In 1895 he became the first African American to be awarded a Ph.D. from Harvard. He taught economics and history at Atlanta University between 1897 and 1910, and helped co-found the NAACP in 1910. He was the editor of The Crisis, the official organ of the NAACP. In 1934, he resigned from his position at the NAACP, resumed his teaching career at Atlanta University, and became the editor of the university's quarterly, Phylon from 1940-1944. He returned to the staff of the NAACP in 1944, this time, as the director of the department of social research. Throughout his career, he contributed writings to many leading black newspapers including The Pittsburgh Courier, Chicago Defender, and The Afro-American. In his later years, he became interested in the issues of nuclear disarmament and world peace. He joined the Communist party in 1961, emigrated to and became a citizen of Ghana, where he died on August 27, 1963.
Andrews, William L., editor. Critical Essays on W.E.B. Du Bois, Boston: MA: G.K. Hall, 1985.
DeMarco, Joseph P. The Social Thought of W.E.B. Du Bois, Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1983.
Du Bois, Shirley Graham. His Day Is Marching On: A Memoir of W.E.B. Du Bois, Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1971.
Franklin, V.P. W.E.B. DuBois as Journalist. Journal of Negro Education 1987 56 (2): 240-44.
Hamilton, Virginia. W.E.B. Du Bois: A Biography, New York: T.Y. Crowell, 1972.
Harris, Thomas E. Analysis of the Clash Over the Issues Between Booker T. Washington and W. E. B, Du Bois. New York: Garland Publishers, 1993.
Horne, Gerald. Black and Red: W.E.B. Du Bois and the Afro American Response to the Cold War, 1944-1963, Albany NY: State University of New York Press, 1985.
Lewis, David L. W.E.B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race, 1868-1919, New York: H. Holt, 1993.
Logan, Rayford Whittingham, editor. W.E.B. Du Bois: A Profile, New York: Hill and Wang, 1971.
Ramparsad, Arnold. The Art and Imagination of W.E.B, Du Bois, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976.