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Crow, John A. (1992) The Epic of Latin America, 4th ed. Berkeley: University of California Press

Manuel, Peter (1995) Caribbean Currents: Caribbean Music from Rumba to Reggae. Philadelphia: Temple University Press

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Roberts, John Storm (1979) The Latin Tinge: The Impact of Latin American Music on the United States. New York: Oxford University Press

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Thomas, Hugh (1997) The Slave Trade. New York: Simon and Schuster