Classical Texts |
Key Contemporary Texts |
Other Selected Texts |
Books for Younger Readers
History of the Peloponnesian War by Thucydides, translated
by Rex Warner, published by Penguin, 1972. ISBN 0-14-044039-9.
The Rise and Fall of Athens: Nine Greek Lives by Plutarch,
translated by Ian Scott-Kilvert, published by Penguin, 1960. ISBN
The Histories by Herodotus, translated by Aubrey De
Selincourt, published by Penguin, 1996. ISBN 0-14-044638-9.
Key Contemporary Texts
The Cambridge Illustrated History of Ancient Greece, edited
by Paul Cartledge, Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-521-48196-1.
Greek People by Robert B. Kebric, published Mayfield
Publishing, 1997. ISBN 1-55934-645-0.
Athens: A Portrait of the City in its Golden Age by
Christian Meier, translated by Robert and Rita Kimber, published by John
Murray, London, 1999. ISBN 0-7195-5959 6.
The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Greece by Robert
Morkot, published by Penguin, 1996. ISBN 0-14-0-513353.
A Dictionary of the Ancient Greek World by David Sacks,
Oxford University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-19-511206-7.
The Parthenon by Susan Woodford, published by Cambridge
University Press, 1981. ISBN 0-521-22629-5.
A Concise History of Ancient Greece by Peter Green,
published by Thames & Hudson, 1973. ISBN 0-500-45014-5.
The Oxford Classical Dictionary, edited by Simon Hornblower
and Antony Spawforth, Third Edition, Oxford University Press, 1996. ISBN
The Greek and Persian Wars 500-323 BC by Jack Cassin-Scott,
published by Osprey Books, 1977. ISBN 0-85045-271-6.
The Ancient Olympics by Judith Swaddling, published by the
British Museum, 1980. ISBN 0-7141-2002-2.
Who's Who in Classical Mythology, by John Hazel and Michael Grant, 1973,
published by Routledge,ISBN 1-415-11937-5.
Who's Who in the Greek World, by John Hazel, 2000, published by
Other Selected Texts
Athens: The City and its Museums by Iris Douskou, published
by Ekdotike Athenon, 1979. ISBN 960-213-005-9.
Greek Tragic Theatre by Russ Rehm, published by Routledge,
1992. ISBN 0-415-11894-8.
Greek Art by John Boardman, published by Thames &
Hudson, 1985. ISBN 0-500-20194-3.
Athenian Democracy by John Thorley, published by Routledge,
1996. ISBN 0-415-12967-2.
Socrates by Anthony Gottlieb, published by Phoenix
Paperbacks, 1997. ISBN 0-753-80191-4.
The Athenian Trireme by J.S.Morrison and J.F.Coates,
published by Cambridge University Press, 1986. ISBN 0-521-31100-4.
Love in the Ancient World by Christopher Miles and John
Julius Norwich, published by Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1997. ISBN
Treasures of Ancient Greece by John S. Bowman, published by
Tiger Books International, 1997. ISBN 1-85501-921-3.
Books for Younger Readers
See Inside: An Ancient Greek Town, Series Editor:
R.J.Unstead, Author: Jonathon Rutland, published by Barnes & Noble,
1986. ISBN 1-56619-987-5.
Ancient Greece by Anne Pearson, published by Dorling
Kindersley, 1992. ISBN 0-86318-909-1.
The Greek News, by Anton Powell and Philip Steele, published by Walker Books Ltd, 1996. ISBN 0-7445-2868-2.
General Websites for Students |
Greek Art |
Literature and Drama |
History & Famous People |
Greek City States and Places |
Mythology / Religion |
Sports and Recreation |
War, Warfare and Weapons |
Science and Medicine |
The Greek Alphabet (ancient Greek) |
Everyday Life |
Food of Ancient Greece |
Clothing, Hair Styles, Jewelry, and Make Up |
Maps, Travelers and Geography |
Important Animals |
Links in Spanish for Bilingual Classes |
CD's and Videos
General Websites for Students
Ancient Greek World: Introduction (University of Pennsylvania Museum) gives a good overview of
ancient Greek history and culture. This presentation of life in ancient
Greece has four major themes: Land and Time, Daily Life, Economy, and
Religion and Death. Objects in the museum illustrate the history
- Greek Civilization for Middle
Schoolers (A.K.A. "Greek Civ for Kids" from Portland State University, 1999)
These pages have been designed by Portland State sophomores primarily for
the use of middle school students (ages 11-14) investigating Greek
civilization of the Classical period. They include appropriate information
and maps, links to other relevant sites on the World Wide Web, and
suggestions for further reading.
- Ancient Greece (from Universal
Artists) is a rich resource of links for history, mythology, art, culture,
architecture and more.
- Ancient Greek Artifacts Virtual Tour of the British Museum with a description of Teachers' Resource Packs commercially available in the UK.
- Greek Mythology Link Catalogue of Images, by Carlos Parada. This site is a great resource for teachers and students who are trying to find information about and images of mythological characters for student reports. There are photographs of
classical and modern statues and paintings. For example, see paintings of Theseus Slaying the Minotaur or
Thetis dipping Achilles into the
River Styx to protect him from death, or a statue of Athena springing from the head of Zeus, or a classical statue of Athena from the Parthenon.
[Warning to teachers of younger students: several of the paintings and
statues will present characters in the nude. If that is a problem for your
classes, you might want to go through the list and bookmark those which are
appropriate to your students. Teachers should also read the copyright
notice at the top of the page which prohibits using the images for
publication on the www.]
- The National Archaeological Museum of Athens is the most important archaeological museum in Greece and one of the richest in the world concerning ancient Greek
art. The museum's collections include: Prehistoric items, Sculpture, Pottery and Minor art , and
Bronzes (as well as a collection
of Egyptian Art).
- The Acropolis Museum (Athens,
Greece) has a collection of the art of the Acropolis. Click on the
thumbnail photographs (small pictures) to get an enlargement.
- The Louvre Museum in Paris has
an extensive collection of Greek and Hellenistic art. Click on a time
period, then click on the thumbnail photographs (small pictures) to get
enlargements. (Virtual tours of Greek rooms on the main floor are also
available, but require Quicktime 4.)
- Ancient Greek Sculpture (limited
collection) which shows the discus thrower, and some Roman copies of Greek
- Greek Art and Architecture
(University of Colorado at Colorado Springs) has an extensive collection of
images of architecture from various
archeological sites (Crete, Athens, Olympia, Delphi and more), sculpture from early to late
classical and through Hellenistic times.
- Emory University (in Atlanta, Georgia) has a Permanent Collection of Classical Art . It
is introduced at this site. The text is rather advanced for middle and high
school students, but it is accompanied by several good photographs from the
- The Pergamon Great Altar (now in
Berlin's Pergamon Museum) was taken from Pergamon, a Greek city-state in
modern day Turkey. The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco recently
showed friezes (carvings on walls) of the incredible Pergamon Altar
and set up this online tour of the Telephos Friezes from the Great Altar.
(Telephos was a son of Hercules and Auge, and the panels depicting the
story of Telephos are presented at this site.) A New York tourist named Max
Ule took these four photographs in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin: the
courtyard display, part of the altar, work in progress, and friezes (figures are almost life-size). Hisashi Okamoto, a professor from Kyoto University, has added these beautiful pictures from the Pergamon Museum to the web.
- Looking at Art of Ancient Greece and Rome (Getty Museum). Compare the older, formal style of a
Kouros (young man,
about 530 B.C.) and the later more natural pose shown in a statue of a
Victorious Youth (325 - 300
B.C.) This change was revolutionary and the older style died out. A
Carteret Community College instructor says this newer style, first shown in
a statue (The Kritios Boy) represents
humanism, idealism, and rationalism and a break from the Egyptian style.
The Acropolis, from The Greeks documentary
Modelling of Miletus (a project of the
Foundation of the Hellenic World of Athens) includes views of 10 buildings
of Miletus including a stadium, the Bouleuterion (Council House), a sacred
gate, the Altar of Poseidon, and more.
- The Ancient City of Athens is a
collection of pictures collected for Indiana University. [a Top 5% Site]
- Especially useful for teachers and students creating webpages is the
section called "Sites and Monuments" which has
more than 400 photographs of such famous sites as the Parthenon, Acropolis,
temples, arches, and parts of the ancient city of Athens. For examples of
these sites, see:
- View of the Acropolis from the southwest, showing the Propylaia, the Temple of Athena Nike, part of
the Erechtheion, and the Parthenon.
- The South Porch or Caryatid Porch of the
Erechtheion. "Caryatids" (or "Karyatids") are
female figures used as architectural supports in place of columns -- a
feature associated with Ionic architecture.
- The Agora: The Commercial and
Civic Center of Athens
- Ancient Sites Walking Tours of Athens offers three "virtual tours of ancient Athens" with high
quality computer graphics and effective explanations of what you are
seeing. One tour (approximately 5 minutes) is of an Athenian home. Another
tour (15 minutes) takes you to the Acropolis with an architect in 415
B.C.E., and the third tour (10 minutes) takes you to the Acropolis with a
philosopher in 415 B.C.E.
- "Restoring Virtual Ruins" The
Digital Museum site (from Scientific American Magazine) shows how digital
images can create computer models for reconstructions.
- The Acropolis of Athens briefly
introduces this famous site and its ruins. (Hellenic Ministry of Culture)
- City of Knossos (Minoan Civilization) and the Palace of Knossos - This site
includes an artist's conception of the ancient Palace of Knossos and an
Image Gallery with 16 images of the Palace. Minos is the home of the
mythological Minotaur killed by the hero Theseus, and where Daedalus built
the labyrinth and escaped by learning how to fly - only to lose his son
Icarus. The Minoan civilization flourished early in the history of ancient
Greece. An artist's idea of The
Palace of Knossos (Dilos Holiday World) is
also shown at his site.
- Greek Temples are presented (in
architectural plans and with photographs) and style (orders of Doric and
Ionian columns and capitals) at this site from Japan entitled Greek Art and
- Period and Style for Designers: Greece has images of buildings, ornamentation and furniture of
Literature and Drama
Greek Literature" from Hellas On-Line briefly
identifies the famous writers and story tellers of ancient Greece,
including Aesop (an African who became a slave in Greece), play writers
such as Sophocles, Thucidites, Euripides, and more, and of course, Homer,
the blind poet and story-teller of the Iliad and the Odyssey. This
excellent website has links so that you can read the fables, plays, and
epic poems. [Some literary works require a download with "ZipIt"]
- The Iliad and the Odyssey by Homer about 800 B.C. The Iliad tells of
Helen, wife of a Greek king, who is taken to Troy. This starts a battle
that went on for ten years until the Greeks used a wooden horse to trick
the Trojans. Hiding inside the horse, they went into the city and the
conquered the unsuspecting Trojans. Learn more about this famous story at
"The Virtual Iliad", a summary of
the Iliad for students, and see the background links. Also see
"The Virtual Odyssey" and its
background links. (Available
From ThinkQuest.) Drama
- Ancient Greek Theater (part of
The History Ring) by Elias Karayannako is an award-winning site. It tells
about Ancient Greek Theater, The
actors and the chorus, The organization of
the tragic contests, Clothes and scenic appearance, Masks, and more. There are links
to specific Greek plays and playwrights.
- Tragedy -
- Introduction to Greek Tragedy
(from Brooklyn College, N.Y.) This is a difficult article for middle school
students, but will help high school and college students to understand the
forms of tragedies and early Greek theater. It tells about the actors,
costumes and masks,the use of a chorus, and introduces several famous tragic plays of the
- More information on Greek Tragedy The "first actor"
Thespis (from whom we get the name "thespian" or "actor") is briefly
- Study Guide for Sophocles' Oedipus the King (by Robin Mitchell-Boyask, Temple University) combines an
online version of the play with links to graphics and explanations. Oedipus
is a tragic hero. Before he was born, his father went to the Delphic Oracle
to learn of the future of his child. The oracle said that the child would
grow up to kill his father and marry his mother. For a short summary of the
story, click [here]. For a longer explanation
of the play for teachers who might want to produce it with high school
students, see Howard's Lesson Plan, Yale-New
Haven Teachers Institute.
- Sophocles' play Antigone is a critique of
absolute power and unenlightened rule. The play details the disasters that
befall a society in the midst of change, when long-accepted traditions
conflict with interests of a new era, and gives us a view of the thinking
of the people of Athens at that time.
- Aeschylus (information from
Encarta Online), is considered "the father of the dramatic tragedy",
525?-456 B.C. He is the playwright of "The Persians" (written in 472
B.C., available on-line) which portrayed King Xerxes as a man destroyed by
his own hubris, or pride. He also wrote Promethius Bound, Seven Against
Thebes, and other plays. See a brief study
guide with guiding questions by a professor
at University of Idaho. Learn more about Aeschylus (Perseus Encyclopedia) which gives more information about his life, and tells of his
importance and influence.
- Aristophanes 448?-380? B.C.,
(from InfoPlease, Columbia Encyclopedia) wrote plays entitled "The Clouds"
which makes fun of philosophers like Socrates, and "Lysistrata" in which
the Athenian women boycott their husbands to end a war, "Women in Politics"
in which the women take over the government, "The Acharnians" which is an
attack on the Peloponnesian War, and more. "The Birds" (online from Perseus
Project) is widely regarded as Aristophanes' greatest play. Originally
produced in 414 B.C.E in Athens at a time of tumultuous social upheaval and
civil strife, "Birds" tells the story of two ordinary men in search of a
better life as far as possible from the problems of the city, the choking
law courts, corrupt politicians, and endless war. Our heroes conspire to
persuade the Birds to join them in the creation of a new city .
- Satyr Plays - short, slapstick pieces characterized by a chorus
of satyrs (half men, half beasts) who act as a farcical backdrop to the
traditional mythological heroes oftragedy.
History & Famous People
- Solon, the Lawgiver and
Reformer of Ancient Athens (c. 600 - 563 B.C.E.) This is a short biography
of the reformer (from Encarta Online). Solon (Compton's Encyclopedia
Online) also gives a brief introduction. Also see Athens
and Solon - Sparta (Tourist Guide of Greece)
Solon was written about by Putarch, the Roman historian (15 Ancient Greek
Heroes from Plutarch's Lives: Solon). There
is an online glossary to help with difficult words.
- Pisistratus (information from
on-line encyclopedia). Additional information about Pisistratus is found with
- Homer and the Story of Troy (See "Literature" above)
- Cleisthenes c. 572 - c. 485
B.C.E was generally regarded as the founder of Athenian democracy.
(Information from on-line encyclopedia). The Reforms of Cleistenes is
information for more advanced students, but summarized at Perseus Project: Cleisthenes' Reforms. Aristotle told of Cleistenes
reforms, too. Democracy on Line has more
information about Cleistenes. Read about the Government After the Changes Made By
Cleistenes. This short article tells about
how male citizens could participate in the early democracy.
- Themistocles (InfoPlease
Encyclopedia Entry) tells that Themistocles was a brilliant general and
leader of Athens who convinced the Atheneans to build up their navy to
protect themselves against the advancing Persians. In the Battle of Salamis
in 480 B.C. he won an tremendous victory. Later, however, he was exiled
From Athens. Also see The Importance of Themistocles
(an essay by Greg Ong).
- The First Marathon Run, The History of
Phidippides (by Paul Ostapuk) tells of the
messenger-runner who tried to get Sparta's help for a battle between Athens
and the Persian invaders at Marathon and ran for about 140 miles to deliver
the news, return, and then join the battle!
- Biography of Political Leaders of Athenian Democracy includes Cleistenes, Themistocles,
Cimon, and Pericles. (This information was prepared by students at Portland
State University for middle school students.)
- 15 Ancient Greek Heroes from Plutarch's Lives:
Pericles gives a comprehensive biography of
this famous leader. There is an online to help with difficult words.
- Pericles and the Golden Age of Athens
- Pericles - A biographical home page from Portland State's Greek Civ for Kids
- Pericles also from
Portland State's Greek Civ for Kids
- Democracy On Line has more
information of Pericles (495 - 429 B.C.E.)
- Pericles' Funeral Oration (a
famous speech during the war with Sparta reported by the historian
Thucydides). In this speech he tells his confidence in Athenian democracy
which helped to create its Golden Age. (From the World Civilizations site
by T. Hooker, Washington State University; The Funeral Oration is also found at
Westminster College in Salt Lake City, Utah.)
- See his bust (statue) and learn more
about him at this site from Westminster College.
- Asphasia -
(Perseus encyclopedia) She was the intelligent consort of Pericles, praised
by Socrates for her rhetoric (ability to speak and argue well) and her
- Athens vs. Sparta (in the
Pelopponesian Wars) is a full and rather difficult to read history of the
conflicts between Athens and Sparta. (The reading level is for high school
- Thucidides (c.460 - c.400
B.C.) is called the creator of objective historical science because
he wrote his 'History of the Peloponnesian War' arguing that victors in war
were not determined by the gods, but by man-made natural causes. During the
Peloponnesian War, he commanded part of the Athenian fleet. He lost a
battle and he was exiled for 20 years. During this time, he visited all
parts of Greece and wrote his history. (See more information from the
- Socrates is introduced as
Athens' critic, for which he was condemned to death. (Evansville University
- Philip of Macedon - father of
Alexander the Great. This is a one page biography of Philip with links to
Alexander. The father and son never got along very well.
- Alexander the Great - one of the
world's greatest conquerors who also studied with Aristotle! This site
gives much information about the life and legend of Alexander the Great.
- Alexander the Great (from )
gives information about this famous man.
- Another Alexander the Great site
(project by John J. Popovic) is well illustrated with maps, photographs of
- Sappho's Poetry - six of
Sappho's poems are here after a brief introduction to her life. Twelve more
are presented here at Athena Nike's Pages: Poetry of Sappho. Most of Sappho's poetry is either lost or fragmented. She
was deemed the tenth Muse by Plato nearly two decades after her death. She
was from the Greek Isle of Lesbos.
Greek City States and Places
- Sparta (written by
Jennifer Taylor, Minnesota State University, Mankato) is a good
introduction and includes further information at The Culture of Sparta and Women of Sparta
- Athens (written by
Jennifer Taylor, Minnesota State University, Mankato) is a good
introduction and includes further information about classes of Athens
and women of Athens.
- Enjoy the reenactment of battle by Spartan hoplite warriors at
The Ancient Greeks (BBC)
- Learn more about the city states and the development of democracy.
Visit Bouleuterion: Birthplace of Democracy (produced by
the Foundation of the Hellenic World, 1996). This site includes a map from
which you choose a place in which Greek City States developed. [StudyWeb
Award Winning Site]
- Compare Sparta with Athens! See Athens
and Solon - Sparta (Tourist Guide of Greece)
and Sparta (World Civilization by
Richard Hooker, Washington State University) is rather difficult to read,
but very complete. Spartan Stories and How
Lycurgus (king around 885 B.C.)
set up the militaristic society. An Interactive View of the Peloponnesian War (by Simon Frank) presents background information on the two
enemies: Sparta and Athens. Daily Life Ancient Greece by Mr.
Donn (written for middle school and young students) allows you to compare
city-states: Sparta, Athens, Corinth, Argos, and Megara.
- Everything Spartan, Lakonian and Messenian (by Holly, award winning site) has much information of
Spartan women, art, poetry, photographs of Sparta, and more.
- Delphi, in central
Greece, was home of the celebrated Delphic Oracle which supposedly could
predict the future. (By Simpson) See images of a priestess and
of Oedipus solving the riddle of the
Syphx. The priestess of the Delphic oracle in
ancient Greece may have delivered her prophecies under the influence of
petrochemical fumes, says a geologist. The oracle's priestess, a woman
called the Pythia, sat over the chasm and breathed this
"divine afflatus", from which she drew powers of prophecy. Learn more about
the priestess at Albany's site.
Mythology / Religion
- The Ancient Greek World - Religion and Death
From the University of Pennsylvania Museum presents the religious practice
of the ancient Greeks, including sacrifices, games, festivals, and burial
- Ancient Greek religion is explained at "The Ancient
Gods", part of Hellas On Line. This site
includes a "family tree" and introduction to the Titans, the Olympian Gods,
and Other Gods and Semi-Gods.
- Herakles (or "Hercules" to the
Romans) is part of the Perseus Project: "Hercules: Greece's Greatest Hero".
This excellent site gives the biography of Herakles, tells of his labors,
his adventures, and more! For an interesting chart comparing Walt Disney's Hercules with Greek Mythology, see
Greek Mythology Link. Learn more about Hercules at the Greek Mythology Link.
- The Greek Mythology Link is a
collection of the Greek myths being written and published on line by Carlos
Parada, author of the book Genealogical Guide to Greek Mythology. The
material provided in the Greek Mythology Link includes texts, images,
tables and maps. This site gives brief biographies of 117 Individuals (from Achilles to
Zeus) and tells of an equally large number of mythological characters such
as monsters (from Abraxas to Xanthus) and more! Information is in a grid
format (not told as a story); Also see their Places and Peoples site to learn
more about such places as the underworld, Troy, Athens, and more. Searching
for relationships is easily done at this great site because of the links
- Other mythological characters and their stories:
- Pegasus from Flights of Fantasy
- Pegasus, the Flying Horse - Advanced; a simple retelling of the story of
Bellerophon and Pegasus for kids; also available with simpler text with
illustrations for young children.)
- Phethon and the Chariot of the Sun - a simple retelling of the story about the son of Apollo who
longs to drive his father's chariot across the sky (from Flights of
Fantasy) with illustrations.
- Daedalus the Inventor (from
Flights of Fantasy) is a simple retelling of the story of Daedalus and his
son Icarus who try to escape from Crete by inventing wings for humans. This
site includes illustrations.
- Jason and the Argonauts has
several sections which explore the question "Was Jason's trip Fact or
Fiction?" (for high school or higher)
- Calendar of
Sacrifices of the 4th century BCE. Sacrifices
were important in Greek religion. Look at a calendar of sacrifices to see
what should be sacrificed to which god, and when.
Windows to the Universe
(University of Michigan). Text is available at beginning, intermediate, and
advanced levels. Many of the Greek and Roman gods and goddesses were
associated with the heavens, the sun, moon, planets or stars. (Modern
scientists have continued to use Roman mythology as they name newly
discovered planets and moons.) Learn more about Classic
Mythology associated with the earth or
heavens, which include:
- Bulfinch's Mythology, 'The Age
of Fable or Stories of Gods and Heroes' presents an online form of this
popular book. You can search the text for key words, or find information by
going to the index of the stories.
Sports and Recreation
- An Introduction to the Ancient Olympics giving its history and descriptions all the events: Boxing,
Equestrian events, Chariot racing, Riding, Pankration, Pentathlon, Running,
- A Tour of ancient Olympia (the
original site of the games which started over 2,700 years ago)
- Context of the Games and the Olympic Spirit tells of the athletes from all over the Mediterranean, the
truce during the games, the spectators, and more.
- Stories of the Athletes
War, Warfare and Weapons
A Spartan Soldier looking out over Athens, from The Greeks documentary
- Ancient Greek Infantry (Portland
University's Greek Civ for Kids) tells of tactical warfare, armor and
weapons, military hierarchy, military pay, and military duty.
- Portland State University's Greek Civilization for Kids:
War (written by college students to assist
middle school students in research reports) tells briefly of the Greek army
and navy, the Persian Wars, the Peloponnesian Wars between Athens and
Sparta, and Alexander the Great.
- Hellas:Net tells about Warfare in Hellas (the Greek
World) with many links describing weapons, battles, strategies, including
naval warfare, and
important battles in Greek history. Learn about the use of
hoplites (heavily armed
and armored foot-soldiers). Learn about the Battle of Marathon in
490 B.C.E.and the important Sea Battle of Salamis in
480 B.C.E. against the Persians. Learn about the
use of elephants by
Alexander the Great , and more!
- An Interactive View of the Peloponnesian War (by Simon Frank) presents background information on the two enemies: Sparta and
- Ancient Greek Boating and Shipping tells of the importance of boating and shipping to the
ancient Greeks for trade, warfare, and colonization of other lands.
- History of Warfare (from the
University of Pennsylvania Museum) briefly tells of the use of chariots in
war, armor, and weapons as shown on pottery and through artifacts.
- Enjoy the reenactment of battle by Spartan hoplite warriors at
The Ancient Greeks (BBC)
Science and Medicine
- Portland State University Greek Civilization for Kids Site:
Environment (written by college students to
assist middle school students in research reports) tell of geology,
geography, weather, plants and animals, and more.
- Portland State University Greek Civilization for Kids Site:
Science (written by college students to
assist middle school students in research reports) tells of astronomy,
biology, boats and ships, mathematics, numbers, metal, water supply, and
- Hippocrates (c.460-380 B.C.) is considered the "father of
medicine". Learn more about him at Greek Physicians from Hellas On-Line.
After a brief introduction, there are samples of his writings about health
and disease, and his famous oath still taken by doctors today. He was a
member of a group of physicians which traced its origins to Asclepius, the
god of healing. Hippocrates was the most famous physician and teacher of
medicine of his time. Over 60 medical treatises that have traditionally
been attributed to him. They look for natural explanations and treatments
of illness and reject sorcery, magic, and interference by gods. See a
bust of him and read a brief biography.
- Greek and Roman Surgical Instruments are shown at this Indiana University site and Surgery of Ancient Rome (from
University of Virginia) also displays classical surgical instruments.
- The Plague in Athens During the Peloponnesian
War is explored at this Indiana University
site. The author concludes that the plague may have been typhus. The plague
was described by Thucydides, the famous Greek historian who survived the
plague and described the growth of Athens up through the plague. A modern
scientist compares the Athenian plague with the modern Ebola
Virus (article from the U.S. Center of
Disease Control, 1996) and quotes from Thucydides' history. The plague and
the Peloponnesian War brought an end to the Golden Age of Athens according to the authors. (difficult - cut?) Medicine in Mythology and Literature (from the University of Virginia) tells of the the arrows of
Apollo and Artemis as a plague against a woman who bragged about her own 14
children, and the healing arrows and practices of Apollo and Asclepius.
(Apollo was father of the healing god Asclepius.)
- Archimedes is introduced at a
site from Drexel University. (difficult )
- Ancient Greek Science Resources.
A very extensive site for important Greek scientists, mathematicians, and
philosophers. Unfortunately, many links have expired or are not available.
- Aristotle's life is described
and there are links to his scientific and philosophical works, part of
- Democritus proposed the theory of atoms which were microscopic and could
not be seen. He also thought the Milky Way was a vast system of stars in an
unending universe. (This is from a series of articles on Greek scientists
From the University of Michigan. The information is presented at thr
reading levels for beginning, intermediate, and advanced readers. The sites
include graphics and links to gain more information.)
- Euclid (brief introduction
From Encarta Online Encyclopedia) lived about 300 B.C., is known for h
work in mathematics and geometry. Advanced students can explore Euclid's Elements (Clark
University site for high school students) and Generalizing Euclid's Proof of Prime Numbers (Mathematical Musings of Mr.K. F. Kuhn)
- Pythagoras (580-520 B.C.) was
known for his work with mathematics, astronomy and music (acoustics).
(University of Michigan site for kids)
- Thales (624 - 546 BC). - first
known Greek philosopher, scientist and mathematician. Also see Thales Materialism for a brief
- Zeno of Elea - calculus
- [Teacher site: The Early Greeks Contribution to Geometry from Yale-New Haven Teachers lesson plan site] This site has
links and activities to introduce students to geometry (use of the
protractor, postulates, angles, etc.) and how the ancient Greeks
contributed to these areas of geometry.
Philosophy (Portland State University's Greek
Civilization for Kids, written by college students for middle school
students) includes an introduction to Greek Philosophy, and highlights
Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.
- Thales (624 - 546 BC). was the
first known Greek philosopher, scientist and mathematician. Also see a
more extensive site also from
- Socrates (469 - 399 B.C.) (from
Encarta Online) was a philosopher who was condemned to death for his
political views. His student, Plato, wrote about him and his philosophy.
- Plato (428?-347? BC) ( from
Encarta Online) introduces Plato, a pupil of Socrates, famous as a
philosopher whose writings we can read today. The Portland State
University's Greek Civ for Kids site for Plato for the Young Inquirer
has biographical information, his ideas and conclusions, how he impacts us
today, a visit with a Plato expert (Professor Moor), and more! Professor
Suzanne at Evansville University has written a summary of Plato and His Dialogs
appropriate for high school and university students.
- Aristotle's life is described
and there are links to his scientific and philosophical works, part of
Hellas On-Line. Aristotle is known as a student of Plato and the teacher of
Alexander the Great. [Also included at this site is Epictetus, the Stoic
Philosopher, whose philosophy resembled Christianity in its love of good
and hatred of evil.]
- History of Ancient Greek Music
(from a school in Greece) tells about the development of Greek music and
the musical instruments used in ancient
- Ancient Greek Music - you can
hear fragments of ancient Greek music over the computer!
- Homeric Singing (part of the
- Ancient Greek Music (from
Infoplease - Encyclopedia Entry) give some basic information about Greek
- Greek Gift of Music (Portland
State's Greek Civilization for Kids) introduces Greek music which is further explained at Music Theory, Music and Religion, and
Musical Instruments. [Examples
of student research?]
- Image of a musical contest between Apollo
and Marsyas (by Praxiteles, circa 320 BC)
- Musical instruments: legends about their invention. flute and double
flute (aulos), pipes of Pan, lyre
[kithara] of Apollo. The god
of music and harmony was Apollo. He was the leader of the nine
muses (or "fairy" daughters of Zeus and
Mnemosyne) which include music, dance, poetry, comedy, history, etc.
- Musical education (importance of)
- Music in myth - Orpheus vase scene
The Greek Alphabet (ancient Greek)
- The Greek Alphabet (from
ThinkQuest) and The Greek Alphabet (University
of Washington) shows the Greek alphabet by letter name in Greek, the
letters (capital and small), and the sound.
- The Ancient Greek World - Men's Life Index from the museum at the University of Pennsylvania tells about
daily life of the men.
- The Ancient Greek World - Women's Life from the museum at the University of Pennsylvania tells about
daily life of the women.
- The Ancient Greek World - The Greek House from the museum at the University of Pennsylvania tells about
typical Greek homes.
- Portland State's Greek Civ for Kids: Everyday
Life (written by college students to assist
middle school students in research reports) tells of social classes,
getting food, friends, family and marriage, women, clothes, education, and
- Learn about the ancient Greek money at Denominations of Ancient Greek Coins at F.J. Wagner's site.
- Daily Life Ancient Greece by Mr.
Donn is written for middle school and young students. It addresses such
topics as schools, family, food, houses, pets and toys; a section on the
Olympics. You may also compare city-states: Sparta, Athens, Corinth, Argos,
and Megara. [Also included are classroom
- Slavery in Ancient Greece (by
Kirsten Brown of Portland State's Greek Civ for Kids) tells of slavery in
- Women, Children and Men (by
Marilyn A. Katz, from the Cambridge Illustrated History of Athens) was put
on-line for college students at Wesleyan University in Connecticut. "The
inhabitants of Athens included, besides its male citizens, a large number
of male and female slaves, a population of male and female resident aliens
or 'metics' roughly equal in number to citizens, and the wives and children
of citizen men. Citizens' wives shared in citizen status, but this entitled
them principally to bear sons who would become citizens or, daughters who
would become the wives of citizens. Secondly, there were other areas of
civic and communal life in the ancient polis besides the political one, and
women, non-citizens, and even slaves played important parts in many of
them: the religious and economic spheres, for example, as well as the
various aspects of community in the demes or villages. And finally, the
social ideal which consigned men to the public, and women to the private
realm, was no more than that: an ideal. It figures very prominently in much
of Greek art and literature, but when we examine more closely some of
details of ancient Greek social and cultural practices, the reality looks
Food of Ancient Greece
Clothing, Hair Styles, Jewelry, and Make Up
Portland State's Greek Civ for Kids: Clothing and
Costume in Ancient Greece tells of the common
fabrics used in Greek clothing, and the styles of clothing worn by the
Greeks. There are links to Greek Costumes.
- Ancient Greek Costume Links
includes images of jewelry, hair styles, clothing for men, women, soldiers,
- Greek Jewellery - 5000 years of tradition - Ancient Greek Jewelry provides excellent
photographs of necklaces, bracelets, belts, earrings, and more.
- Slide Shows of Classical Images.
The first show has 38 photographs of people dressed up like ancient Greeks
(even though some are wearing glasses or shoes and socks with their
costumes!); the second show has 111 drawings of Greek costumes for women;
the third is of Roman mosaics.
- Ancient Greek Women's Dress and Hair (The Costumer's Manifesto) has some pictures.
Maps, Travelers and Geography
- Horses were used in war, for
transportation and other activities. This site is from the University of
Chronological History of Greece in the Vth and IVth centuries
B.C. (long and linky)
General History of Greece (also
see intro to art, archit. etc. in part 2)
NM's Creative Impulse..Greece good links, general info.
Links in Spanish for Bilingual Classes
Páginas en español, Greek Mythology
Link (based on Genealogical Guide to Greek
Mythology by Carlos Parada) includes stories such as Medusa, Pandora, Afrodita,
Perseo, y más.
CD's and Videos
The Magical Walk of Curious Julius at Delphi - Archaeology,
Knowledge and Adventure
CD-ROM "The magical walk of Curious Julius at
Delphi". This CD-ROM, aimed at over-11s, familiarizes them with the science
of archaeology and gives them some idea of the history of Delphi, one of
the principal sacred places in Antiquity. The leading hero, Curious Julius,
a cartoon character of about the same age as the children using the CD-ROM,
has a thirst for information, and his companion, the archaeologist Hector
Excavator, conduct the user on an adventure of knowledge and
The Odyssey - The Discovery
Channel has a half-hour video (airing on TV and for sale at $34.95) with
online lesson plans and activities related to U.S. National Standards.
ADDITIONAL TEACHER LESSON PLANS FOR UNITS ON ANCIENT GREECE &
EXAMPLES OF STUDENT WORK
- See webpages created by sixth grade students in a
San Jose, California school telling of "Everyday Life in Ancient Greece:
Life as a Kid, a Father, A Mother, A Slave" and more.
- Wonderful World of Ancient Greece (ThinkQuest) has student reports on Arts, Battles &
Heroes, Everday Life, First Olympics, Government, Religion and more. (By
students grades 4-6.)
- Ancient Greek Olympics shows
student work with tips from the teacher on setting up learning centers with
computers. This is part of "Nuestra Tierra" Educational Technology Project.
- SCORE (Schools of California Online Resources for
Education) has Resources and Activities for
teachers at each grade level prepared by teachers. World History and
Geography: Ancient Civilizations, 6th Grade. Resources for ancient Greece are
rated on a scale of 1 (high) to 5 (low). California's sixth Grade Standards are also identified for teachers. Eight
activities are found in the Greek section of
SCORE including games, WebQuests, a model of a student created virtual
museum, and more.
- Greek Travel Brochure project by Kevin Deutsch, teacher at Lux Middle School, Lincoln, Nebraska.
- Mr. Donn's Daily Life in Ancient Greece includes a few Ancient History Lesson Ideas by
Mrs. Donn for elementary school students and Lesson Plans by Mr. Donn which
include a simulation which asks students to compare the judicial system in ancient Athens and an
American court (for students in grades 8 -
12), units on the Olympics (for sixth grade students?), mythology, and
- Lesson Plans from Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. Search for more. Some are better developed than others, but
here are some appropriate topics:
- "Remember the Time: An Exploration of History Through
Drama" spends one week on Greek drama before
moving into medieval drama. (Lesson Plan by Perrault, Yale-New Haven
- "Euripides' Alcestis" Lesson Plan
by O'Neil, Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. Student read, discuss, and
act out parts of the tragic plan, and are involved in other activities.
(The unit is designed for the middle school student of varying reading
levels. It is a six week course.)
- "Greek and Roman Mythology in the Classroom" by Garcia, Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. (Purpose is to
supplement the curricula of social and urban studies classes at the
secondary level, by introducing Greek and Roman mythology and its influence
in contemporary society. Designed for high school students, varying time
periods required according to selected objectives.)
- "Hercules: Super Hero" by McGuire,
Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. (Drama class in conjunction with social
studies class, with recommendations for elementary, middle and high school
- "The Origin of Life: A History of Ancient Greek
Theories" (by Puglia, Yale-New Haven Teachers
Institute) deals with science and philosophy (the love of knowledge) -
giving background information on Aristotle and others as the students
observe the development of frogs from eggs.
- "The Iliad - A Practical Approach"
by Lesson Plan by Taylor, Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute, for high
- "The Grouch (Dyskolos) by Menander: An Example of Greek New
Comedy" Lesson Plan by Polio She developed
this for limited English speaking students in the middle school.
ACADEMICS APPEARING IN THE
GREEKS: CRUCIBLE OF CIVILIZATION
Paul Cartledge was the academic consultant for the series. A
Reader in Greek History in the Faculty of Classics and a Fellow and Director of Studies
in Classics at Clare College, he has just been made Professor of Greek
History at Cambridge.
His past publications include The Greeks: Portrait of Self and
Others, Sparta and Lakonia, Political Thought in
Ancient Greece, and Democritus. He was also editor of
The Cambridge Illustrated History of Ancient Greece.
Victor Hanson is Professor of Classics, California State
University, Fresno, USA. He has contributed to The Wars of Ancient Greece, Volume II
of the 24 volume History of War series edited by John Keegan,
published by Cassells, London, 1999. His most recent book The Soul of
Battle: From Ancient Times to the Present Day was published by the
Free Press in October 1999.
Helen King is Reader in the History of Classical Medicine,
University of Reading, UK. Her most recent book, Hippocrates Women: Reading the Female
Body in Ancient Greece was published in October 1998.
Alexander Nehamas is Professor of Philosophy and Comparative
Literature, Princeton University, USA. He has just published two books on themes that are central to the third
episode of the series: The Art of Living: Socratic Reflections from
Plato to Foucault by the University of California Press, and
Virtues of Authenticity: Essays on Plato and Socrates by
Princeton. He has also published a number of important works on philosophy
Tony Podlecki is Emeritus Professor of Classics, Princeton
University, USA. His published works include: The Life of Themistocles
, McGill-Queens University, 1975.
Nigel Spivey is Fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, UK.
Barry Strauss is Professor of History, Cornell University, USA. His previous publications include 'War and Democracy: The Peloponnesian War and the Korean War', co-edited with David Mcann, Armonk, N.Y: M.E.Sharpe (1999); 'Epilogue: On War and Society in the Pre-Modern World' with Victor Hanson in K.Raaflaub and N.Rosenstein (eds) in 'Warfare and Society in Antiquity and the Middle Ages' (forthcoming, Harvard Press); 'The Dark Ages Made Lighter: The Consequences of Two Defeats' in Robert Cowley (ed) 'What If: The Greatest Might Have Beens in Military History', New York, Putnam (1999); 'Western Civilization: The Continuing Experiment' co-author, Houghton Mifflin (1994); 'Fathers and Sons in Athens: Ideology and Society in the Era of the Peloponnesian War', Princeton University Press (1997); and 'Athens After the Peloponnesian War: Class, Faction and Policy 403 - 386 BC', Cornell University Press, (1987).
He has also edited numerous other books on history and warfare as well as being a frequent contributor to books, magazines and academic journals and among his current work in progress is an essay for the book 'Unmaking the West: Counterfactual Thought Experiments in History' entitled 'The Resilient West: Salamis without Themistocles, Classical Greece without Salamis, and the West without Greece.'
Josh Ober is the David Magie Professor of Ancient History and Chairman
of the Classics Department at Princeton University where he teaches
graduate and undergraduate courses in Greek history and political thought.
His books include 'Mass and Elite in Democratic Athens' (1989), 'The
Athenian Revolution' (1996), and most recently, 'Political Dissent in
Democratic Athens (1998). He has been a resident Fellow at the National
Humanities Center, the Center for Hellenic Studies, the University of New
England (Australia), and Claire Hall (Cambridge, UK).
Donald Kagan is Hillhouse Professor of History and Classics, Yale