"Germany was humiliated in different ways by the Versailles Treaty and by the defeat of 1918.
"First, a part of the country was occupied by Allied Troops and especially by African French Troops on the left bank of the Rhine. And despite the fact that it had been impossible to enter into German territory during the war itself, (that was the first humiliation) the part of the German territory occupied by Allied troops and by colonial troops coming from the French empire especially.
"This humiliation was very deep in German society and it had a lot of consequences later.
"The second humiliation, of course, was the restriction of the German army and the limitation of its army for the future. And, the third was the Treaty itself. The fact that German leaders were not invited to the conference, and they only had to sign the Treaty with no objection, and that they had to sign a treaty which declared clearly that Germany was responsible of the disaster in Europe and in the world. And that was, I think, going too far with Germany and that had huge consequences on German nationalism in the 20s and 30s."