The Film | Ethics and Genetics | Reproductive Technology | Articles | Books | Sources
FROZEN ANGELS: Filmmakersı Web Site
Visit the filmmakers’ site to read international press highlights for the film and find out about film festivals, awards and how to get the DVD.
Center for Surrogate Parenting, Inc.
Explore the Web site of the surrogate-parenting agency founded by radio talk show host Bill Handel and featured in FROZEN ANGELS. Find out how the program works and get information for couples interested in surrogacy and women interested in serving as surrogate mothers.
Visit bioethicist, law professor and author Lori Andrews’s site to find speeches, articles, book reviews and information on her personal appearances. An expert featured in FROZEN ANGELS, Andrews also wrote the essay “Brand New Babies” for this site.
Egg Donation, Inc.
Learn about the egg donation agency featured in FROZEN ANGELS. View sample donor and couple profiles, explore the agency’s online donor database and link to articles on egg donation from medical and legal publications.
California Cryobank, Inc.
Browse the Web site of the sperm bank featured in FROZEN ANGELS, which includes a section on sperm banking history, a glossary, donor and services information, sample audio interviews and essays, FAQs and success stories.
“The Last Human” by Gregory Stock
Read an excerpt from the book Redesigning Humans: Choosing Our Genes, Changing Our Future by Dr. Gregory Stock, the director of the influential Program on Medicine, Technology and Society at UCLA’s School of Medicine. Stock, an interviewee in FROZEN ANGELS, writes, “The coming challenges of human genetic enhancement are not going to melt away; they will intensify decade by decade as we continue to unravel our biology, our nature, and the physical universe.”
Slate: Seed: Exploring The "Nobel Prize Sperm Bank"
Read this fascinating 13-part series, published in 2001, which tells the story of the Nobel Prize sperm bank founded in the late 1970s by millionaire industrialist and eugenicist Robert Graham. Read an interview with then eighteen-year-old Doron Blake, who is also featured in FROZEN ANGELS, and is one of the 200-plus children who resulted from Grahamıs genetic experiment.
Ethics and Genetics
BBC: Religion & Ethics: Human Cloning/Genetic Engineering/Designer Babies
Is it right to select the traits of our children? This BBC series on ethics addresses this and other difficult questions surrounding human cloning, genetic engineering and designer babies.
The Center for Genetics and Society: Human Genetics in the Public Interest
This nonprofit information and public affairs organization works to encourage responsible uses and effective societal governance of new human genetic and reproductive technologies. Visit this extensive site to get the latest information on research and policies and analysis of new technologies including human cloning, inheritable genetic modification and other human genetic and reproductive technologies.
Council for Responsible Genetics
The Council for Responsible Genetics is a nonprofit, non-governmental organization founded to distribute accurate information and represent the public interest on emerging issues in biotechnology. CRG’s Web site includes sections on hot-button topics including human cloning, biotech and agriculture, bio-warfare and genetic testing. Visitors can also search the archives of CRG’s bimonthly magazine, GeneWatch, dedicated to monitoring biotechnology’s social, ethical and environmental consequences.
The Institute on Biotechnology & The Human Future
Affiliated with Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), the Institute on Biotechnology & The Human Future is a forum for scholars, cultural and political leaders and consumer advocates, created to assess the benefits and risks of new developments in biotechnology, while analyzing their cultural and ethical significance. Find detailed information on topics including germline intervention, genetic discrimination, gene patents, nanotechnology, human cloning and reproductive technology and link to additional resources on these topics.
Minnesota Public Radio: The Fertility Race
This 2006 continuing series explores the social implications of infertility and the advanced reproductive techniques designed to correct the condition. Listen to and read features on topics including infertility insurance, gay parenting, the fertility industry, HIV and fertility and more. The series’ Web site includes a glossary, statistics on infertility and other features such as a photo gallery of one couple’s journey to parenthood through in vitro fertilization.
Human Genome Project Information: Gene Therapy
This easy-to-understand online Q&A on gene therapy is part of the official Web site of the U.S. government’s Human Genome Project. Learn how gene therapy works, the current status of research, ethical considerations and more. The site includes links to diagrams, related sites and news articles.
InterNational Council on Infertility Information Dissemination (INCIID)
This nonprofit helps individuals and couples explore family building options. The organization’s Web site includes up-to-date information on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infertility and pregnancy loss and offers guidance to those considering adoption as well as childfree options.
American Society For Reproductive Medicine (ASRM)
An organization for “the advancement of the art, science, and practice of reproductive medicine,” ASRM facilitates and sponsors public educational activities for professionals who are engaged in the practice of and research in reproductive medicine. The Society Web site includes answers to frequently asked questions on infertility, downloadable information booklets, statistics on the success of assisted reproductive technologies and links to doctors and adoption sites.
ABC News: Boy or Girl? Couples Choose Unborn Child’s Sex: Parents Use Technique Originally Used to Screen Genetic Disorders
Read this March 2006 story and watch the accompanying video clip about parents who are choosing to use pre-implantation genetic diagnosis to ensure they have a child of a particular sex, rather than for its original use as a test for genetic disorders.
USA Today: Egg Donor Business Booms on Campuses
This March 2006 article reports about how classified ads in college newspapers are successfully seeking out women to be egg donors despite the adverse effects the procedure may have on their health, and how states are beginning to take action to prevent exploitation of women.
Arizona Daily Star: Sales Ban on Eggs of Women Advances
Read this February 2006 report on the Arizona House Judiciary Committee’s vote to criminalize the act of buying or selling human eggs, citing safety and exploitation of women as major concerns.
New York Times: Are You My Sperm Donor? Few Clinics Will Say
This January 2006 article examines the practice among fertility clinics of maintaining anonymity between donors and offspring. The process, as it operates today, involves several ethical and legal implications, from the later on-set of hereditary diseases by donors, to liability and custody issues.
The Clone Age: Adventures in the New World of Reproductive Technology
by Lori B. Andrews
(Owl Books, 2000)
Andrews, a participant in FROZEN ANGELS, is an attorney specializing in genetic and reproductive technology. Her book takes a personal look at the sweeping changes that have affected the way we think of making babies: in vitro fertilization, surrogate motherhood and the prospect of human cloning.
Future Perfect: Confronting Decisions About Genetics
by Lori B. Andrews
(Columbia University Press, 2001)
In this examination of genetic screening, Andrews illustrates the subtle and very frightening ways that genetic screening is already affecting society, particularly women, ethnic groups and people with disabilities.
Human Genetic Engineering: A Guide for Activists, Skeptics, and the Very Perplexed
by Pete Shanks
(Nation Books, 2005)
Shanks, a grassroots political activist, offers a primer on the modification of the human genome, as well as on all fronts of the biotechnology debate, from cloning to stem cells, gene therapy and the genetic engineering of food.
Redesigning Humans: Choosing Our Genes, Changing Our Future
by Gregory Stock
(Mariner Books, 2003)
Stock, director of the UCLA School of Medicine's Program of Medicine, Technology and Society, explores gender selection, gene therapy, germinal choice, and other options available now or in the near future.
The following served as information sources for several pages on this site: