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Test of Courage



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Diversity Timeline
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timeline 1867-1909


Over 2,000 Chinese workers on the Central Pacific Railroad strike for better pay.


The 14th Amendment is ratified, making African Americans full citizens of the U.S., prohibiting states from denying equal protection or due process of law. Women petition to be included but are turned down.


The 15th Amendment is ratified, guaranteeing the right to vote will not be denied on account of race. First segregation law is passed in Tennessee, mandating separation of African Americans from whites on trains. By 1885, most Southern states have laws requiring separate schools.


In Bradwell v. Illinois, the Supreme Court affirms that states can restrict women from the practice of any profession to preserve family harmony and uphold the "Law of the Creator."


Congress passes the first Civil Rights Act, requiring equal accommodations for blacks with whites in public facilities other than schools.


Congress passes the Chinese Exclusion Act, restricting the immigration of all Chinese laborers for 10 years and requiring Chinese to carry identification cards. (Renewed in 1892 for an additional 10 years.)


The Civil Rights Act of 1875 is voided by the Supreme Court.


Women's Suffrage Amendment asking for voting rights and the privilege of being heard on the floor of Congress reaches the Senate floor. It is defeated.


Supreme Court rules on Plessy v. Ferguson, upholding "separate but equal" accommodations under Jim Crow laws. The National Association of Colored Women is founded and becomes a major vehicle for attempted reforms on behalf of women and people of color for the next 40 years.


Women garment workers strike in New York for better wages and working conditions. Over 300 shops eventually sign union contracts. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is founded.


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