I was born for a storm, and a calm does not suit me.
Alexander Hamilton's Opinion of the National Bank
Hamilton contending in 1791 that a national bank was both constitutional and indispensably necessary, for bothe the federal government's fiscal operations and the well-being of the American economy.
Bank War Statement
Jackson's 1832 message to Congress describing his reasons for vetoing the rechartering of the Second Bank of the United States.
Cherokee Phoenix on Farming Methods
An editorial from the Cherokee newspaper rejecting the notion that the Southern tribes were savage or uncivilized.
Cherokee Phoenix Introduction
An excerpt from the introductory editorial frmo the first issue of the Cherokee Nation's official newspaper in 1828.
Constitution of the Cherokee Nation
An excerpt from the 1827 Cherokee Constitution &emdash; outlining the manner in which the nation would govern itself.
Henry Clay on Jackson's Veto of the Bank Bill
Excerpts from Henry Clay's July 12, 1832 Senate speech denouncing Jackson's veto of the bill to recharter the Bank of the United States.
Henry Clay on Native Americans
Henry Clay contesting the Indian Removal Act and speaking in defense of Native Americans' legal rights, highlighting the federal government's moral responsibility to treat them humanely.
Henry Clay on Presidential Vetoes
Clay critiquing, in 1832, Jackson's use of the presidential veto &emdash; believing it to be a violation of the spirit of the Constitution.
Jackson's Message to Congress on Indian Removal
An excerpt taken from Jackson's second annual message to Congress, months after the passage of the Indian Removal Act of 1830.
Jackson's Proclamation on Nullification
Jackson's personal appeal directed to the people of South Carolina &emdash; reminding them that the union was composed not of states, but of "the people."
James Parton's Description of Jackson
Jackson biographer James Parton explains how, after years of study, instead of discovering the real Andrew Jackson he found an enigma.
John C. Calhoun Statement on Nullification
An excerpt from a letter in 1830 where Calhoun explains that the doctrine of nullification aimed, above all else, at protecting the institution of slavery.
John Marshall's Decision on Worcester v. Georgia
An excerpt from the Supreme Court's majority opinion, authored by John Marshall, ruling in the Cherokee's favor.
Kentucky Resolutions of 1798
Resolutions declaring the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 unconstitutional and asserting the right of states to "void" laws that it judged to be in clear violation of the constitutional compact.
Letter from Chief John Ross
A letter describing the Cherokees' deep sense of dismay and frustration at the ratification of the so-called "Treaty" of New Echota that would eventually force the Cherokee Nation from their homeland.
The Meaning of July Fourth for the Slave
An excerpt from the famous speech by Frederick Douglass that aimed to stir the nation's conscience by placing in stark contrast America's libertarian ideals and the realities of slavery.
On Indian Removal of Indians - State of Morals
An excerpt from a pamphlet containing an expanded version of an anti-removal essay that Christian missionary Jeremiah Evarts wrote for the January 1830 issue of the Boston American Monthly Magazine.
Secretary of War Lewis Cass on Indian Removal
An excerpt from Cass' 1831 "Annual Report" that set forth his reasons for believing that removal was in the Indians' best interests.
South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification
Excerpt taken from the nullification "Ordinance" of 1832 that argued that states have the right to nullify federal laws deemed unconstitutional.
Speech on Nullification by Robert Y. Hayne
In his December 13, 1832, inaugural address, South Carolina Governor Robert Y. Hayne seeks to justify South Carolina's bold step.
Thomas Jefferson's Opinion on the National Bank
Jefferson refutes the interpretations of the Constitution's provisions put forth by the Bank's supporters in 1791.
Virginia Resolution of 1798
Resolution declaring the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 unconstitutional and asserting the right of states to "void" laws that it judged to be in clear violation of the constitutional compact.
Downfall of Mother Bank Cartoon
Lithograph by Edward Williams Clay in support of Jackson's controversial 1833 order removing the federal desposits from the United States Bank.
King Andrew Cartoon
Lithograph circa 1833 by Edward Williams Clay lampooning Jackson's sovereign-like behavior.
Symptoms of a Locked Jaw, Plain Sewing Done Here
Lithograph depicting the contentious relationship between Kentucky Senator Henry Clay and Jackson during his presidency.
1824 Electoral College Map
Tally of votes from both the Electoral College and the popular vote for the 1824 presidential election.
1825 House of Representatives Map
Tally of votes from the February 9, 1825 run-off election in the House of Representatives to resolve the 1824 presidential election.
Battle of New Orleans
Lithograph celebrating America's victory in the 1815 Battle of New Orleans.
A syllabry of the Cherokee alphabet, invented by Sequoyah and adopted by the Cherokee Nation in 1821..
The front page of an 1875 printing in the Cherokee language of the Cherokee national constitution.
The front page of the April 10, 1828, issue of the Cherokee newspaper, the Cherokee Phoenix.
Some Accounts of the Bloody Deeds of Andrew Jackson
An anti-Jackson handbill issued during the 1828 presidential campaing, known as the "coffin handbill."
Andrew Jackson: The Candidate
Stately portrait of Jackson painted in 1836 by Ralph E. W. Earl, a close friend of Jackson who painted numerous portraits of Old Hickory between 1817 and 1838.
Andrew Jackson: The Defender of the Union
The official White House portrait of Andrew Jackson, painted by his close friend Ralph E. W. Earl circa 1835.
Andrew Jackson: The First Modern President
Shortly before Jackson's death in 1845, Thomas Sully painted this replica of a study he had painted of Jackson from life in 1824.
Andrew Jackson: The Prophet
Miniaturist and landscape painter James Tooley, Jr. used Marchant's painting as the basis for this 1840 portrait of the seventy-two-year-old former President.
Andrew Jackson: The War Hero
A hand colored lithograph printed by Charles Severin in 1856 of General Andrew Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans.
Andrew Jackson Portrait: The Wild Young Man
The earliest known image of the future president, this miniature portrait of Andrew Jackson was made in 1815 by by Jean-Francois de la Vallée, an artist active in New Orleans between 1808 and 1818.
Chief John Ross
An 1844 lithographic portrait of Cherokee Chief John Ross (1790-1866).
A lithographic portrait of Sequoyah, inventor of the Cherokee syllabary, after an 1828 painting by Charles Bird King.