I was born for a storm, and a calm does not suit me.
"My reason teaches me that land cannot be sold. The Great Spirit gave it to his children to live upon. So long as they occupy and cultivate it, they have a right to the soil. Nothing can be sold but such things as can be carried away." — Black Hawk, Sauk leader
Despite Jefferson's wishes, few Indian nations were willing to give up their land. They believed the land was sacred and that they were responsible for preserving it and maintaining respectful and mutually supportive relationships with animals, plants, and the environment. As early as 1808, the Cherokee created laws that prohibited village chiefs from selling land to the American government without permission from the National Council of Chiefs. The Creeks also created laws making it unlawful for Creek chiefs to sell land or sign treaties of removal. Some chiefs were killed for signing removal or land cession treaties, most notably the Cherokee's Doublehead in 1807 and the Creek's William McIntosh, who was executed in the mid-1820s for signing away all Creek land in Georgia. Though some Indian leaders argued that removal was practical because Americans were already taking the land and making life difficult for Indians near the American settlements, most Indians refused to leave their homelands.