Disputes between India and Pakistan stem from the 1947 British partitioning of India -- once a British possession -- into two independent nations. The region's predominantly Muslim provinces were divided into East and West Pakistan, while predominantly Hindu areas became modern India.
At the epicenter of the Indian-Pakistan conflict is the Jammu-Kashmir state, which, in 1947, had a predominantly Muslim population and was governed by an Indian ruler, Maharaja Hari Singh. He signed Jammu-Kashmir over to India on October 26.
say the Kashmir region, with its majority Muslim population, belongs
in their Islamic state. Indians, meanwhile,
India currently controls some two-thirds of the state; Pakistan controls about one-third.
1947, India and Pakistan have been locked in a tense and often hostile
rivalry. The two countries have fought three wars, with two centering
on the Kashmir conflict. As many as 50,000 people have died over the
has refused to accept the legitimacy of India's claim to Kashmir, and
Pakistani militias and Kashmiri Muslim rebels have fought to overthrow
Indian rule. When Indian forces moved into
1948, the United Nations intervened, issuing a resolution granting Pakistan
control over the northern, and primarily Muslim, territory; leaving
the remaining southern territory to India.
India deployed troops to the region to protect its borders from armed Pakistani and Kashmiri militias.
1949, the U.N. Security Council enlarged its mission to the Kashmir region
and passed another resolution creating a ceasefire line. Shortly afterward,
Pakistan and India signed a deal, called