January: The U.S.-led, U.N.-backed coalition launches air
strikes against Iraq, after Saddam's forces fail to meet a U.N.
deadline to withdraw from Kuwait. During the fighting, many Iraqi
refugees flee to Turkey, Iran and Jordan. Iraq responds by launching
Scud missiles against Israel and Saudi Arabia.
U.S. ground troops force Iraq out of Kuwait. The U.N. imposes
stiff weapons inspections as part of the cease-fire. U.N. inspections
reveal evidence of chemical weapons and nuclear weapon programs.
Iraq destroys some chemical weapons as a condition of the cease-fire.
Shia Muslims in the south and Kurds in the north revolt against
Saddam's weakened regime. The U.S. offers little military support
to the Kurds, although President Bush encourages the ouster of
Saddam. Iraq brutally crushes the revolution. The U.S. and its
allies establish no-fly zones in Northern Iraq to protect the
Kurds. Later a southern no-fly zone is established to protect