GWEN IFILL: Next: to Japan, where a rapidly aging population is forcing the country to rethink its agricultural system.
Our story is part of the Food for 9 Billion series, a multimedia project that explores the challenges of feeding a growing world in a time of social and environmental change. It's a "NewsHour" partnership with the Center for Investigative Reporting, Homelands Productions, and American Public Media's Marketplace.
The correspondent for tonight's installment is SAM EATON.
SAM EATON, Homelands Productions: In modern Japan, farming is still very much a holdover from simpler times. Much of the work is done by hand on small plots of land that have been cultivated by the same families, sometimes for centuries. But,today, Japanese agriculture is at a crossroads.
Japan's farmers, like 71-year-old Yurinori Mori and his wife, Fukiko, are getting old. And their children and grandchildren are leaving the farms for higher-paying jobs in the cities.
YUKINORI MORI, Farmer (through translator): My eldest son is self-employed. And my younger one is working in America. So, they don't really need to take over the family farm. But the bottom line is that if they don't continue on, this household and farm will be over.
SAM EATON: Many industrialized countries are losing farmers to old age. But the problem is especially serious here in Japan, where less than 12 percent of the land is suitable for farming and every acre counts. Japan's government has responded with a proposal to completely overhaul the way the country gets its food.
It wants to increase farm sizes 30-fold over the next five years to make them competitive on the global market. And it's considering a sweeping new free trade agreement that would expose the country's rice farmers to unprecedented international competition, all of which has ignited a passionate public debate over globalization, national identity and food self-sufficiency.
For Masahiro Mosoi, a 49-year-old organic farmer and restaurant owner, producing food isn't just about economic efficiency. He says, in Japan, it has a deeper, even spiritual meaning.
MASAHIRO HOSOI, Farmer and Restaurant Owner (through translator): When we see a scene where the rice plants are growing in a paddy, we feel serenity. We have these ideas in our culture. I'm worried that these things may be lost. What's important is not just that the produce is cheap and good quality, but by farming, we are actually connecting humans to the landscapes. Farming cannot just be a simple capitalistic business practice.
SAM EATON: But farming is also about feeding people. That's not so easy in a mountainous, densely packed country of 127 million.
A visit to Tokyo's giant wholesale fish and vegetable market, Tsukiji, gives a sense of the scale of the challenge. Japan already imports 60 percent of the food it consumes. And after the toll taken by last year's earthquake, tsunami and nuclear disaster, that number is growing.
The trade agreement that the government is promoting would mainly boost the nation's struggling manufacturing base, but there's a trade-off. It would also eliminate sky-high import tariffs on foreign rice, a move that would force Japan's small farmers, like the Moris, to compete directly with industrial mega-farms in the U.S. and Australia.
YUKINORI MORI (through translator): We're working on a smaller scale here. I think that's the way it is now. If this small country, Japan, is put up against those big international growers, I think that it will be a tough situation.
SAM EATON: The Ministry of Agriculture estimates that Japanese rice production would drop 90 percent if the trade deal goes through. But in a country where rice farmers like the Moris have long depended on subsidies to stay afloat, economic Nobuhiro Suzuki says he understands why the government favors an open market.
NOBUHIRO SUZUKI, Economist (through translator): With free trade, if we are talking economics, and there is no reason to do agriculture in a place like Japan, the obvious answer is that Japan should just import its food from countries that are efficient producers.
SAM EATON: But Suzuki says there's more at stake than just economics. He says outsourcing food production can be a dangerous gamble.
NOBUHIRO SUZUKI (through translator): The reason why we still think that it's important for Japan to have a strong agriculture industry is that if and when there is ever a global emergency or trade agreements change, we will still be able to feed ourselves. Also, agriculture is very key in building community and maintaining culture, as well as protecting the environment.
SAM EATON: Farmers like Masahiro Hosoi are finding success with alternative business models that embrace those values while turning a profit. He now runs his own restaurant and sells the produce from his farm directly to high-end buyers. Hosoi says there's a demand for healthy high-quality products and that for him staying small is good for business. He says there's a lesson there for the country as a whole.
MASAHIRO HOSOI (through translator): No matter how big you try to make a farm, it's not like Japan's agriculture will ever compete with other countries' large-scale industrial farms, so it just doesn't make any sense.
SAM EATON: And as Japan's countryside empties out, there are signs of a growing countermovement; 33-year-old Yusuke Miyaji divides his time between urban Tokyo and his family pig farm.
YUSUKE MIYAJI, Founder, Farmers' Son Network: When I was a student, I thought I would be anything but a farmer. I wanted to start a cool business and live in Roppongi Hills in Tokyo and have a Ferrari. That was my dream.
SAM EATON: Then Miyaji saw what was happening to older farmers like his father and had an idea of how he could help. He formed a network of young Japanese farmers called Kosegare, or Farmers' Sons Network, and launched a video marketing campaign to appeal to Japanese youth.
YUSUKE MIYAJI (through translator): Once I looked at it a different way, thinking if we can integrate the entire supply chain into one business model, from food production all the way to the customers' table, the image young people have of farming would change. I think that even though farming is a traditional industry, it can also be a cool, meaningful and even profitable business.
SAM EATON: Miyaji pioneered an e-commerce site called My Farmer, where customers can purchase farmers' harvests online. Like Hosoi's direct marketing business, My Farmer emphasizes a connection between the seller and the buyer, a connection that Miyaji hopes will draw more young people to farming.
YUSUKE MIYAJI (through translator): Our mission is to persuade children of farmers working in the center of Tokyo to quit their job and to return to their farm families and then begin farming. That is the shortest and fastest way to reform agriculture in Japan, I think.
SAM EATON: Passing farmland on to the next generation is a dream shared by 64-year-old Chiharu Tezuka. With small farmers aging out and the government thinking big, Tezuka represents a sort of middle ground that some people say is a better way forward.
Tezuka grows wheat, rice and buckwheat in this scenic mountain valley in Matsumoto, about a three-hour drive west of Tokyo. He says 30 years ago, when he first started farming, he was drawn to the romanticism of small-scale organic agriculture.
CHIHARU TEZUKA, Farmer (through translator): That was going to be my life path, but, in reality, it was extremely difficult, and I was only able to continue organic farming for two years. It was unmanageable. The weeds and the insects were overwhelming. Unfortunately, I wasn't able to make a living with that.
SAM EATON: So instead of getting a second job like most of Japan's small farmers, Tezuka decided to scale up. He rented 800 separate fields from 300 different families, about 250 acres in all. Eventually, he added a flour mill and hired eight employees, including two of his sons.
Tezuka still receives government subsidies. But his farm has been successful enough that he is confident his sons will carry on the business.
He points to Japan's unique terrain, small patches of farmland tucked between mountains, as supporting a model like his.
CHIHARU TEZUKA (through translator): Even if we could make larger crop fields, we'd still need to cultivate the smaller patches and areas in between.
SAM EATON: Tezuka compares the job of feeding the nation to constructing a traditional Japanese building.
CHIHARU TEZUKA (through translator): What makes the building strong are the small stones that go in between the large ones to hold them in place. This is true for agriculture in Japan. Just look at the land we have: The large-scale farms are here, but we need the smaller farms to keep us strong.
SAM EATON: He says that foundation isn't just important for Japanese agriculture. It's what makes Japan, Japan.
GWEN IFILL: You can find a blog post by producer Cassandra Herman about rekindling interest in farming among young people worldwide. That's on the Food for 9 Billion Web site, as are the earlier stories. You can find a link to it all on our site.