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September 27, 2013

Analyzing Stop and Frisk Through Personal Narratives and Infographics

By Katie Gould, NewsHour Teacher Resource Producer and Allison McCartney, Editor for NewsHour Extra

This Common Core-aligned lesson helps students explore the New York City’s “stop, question and frisk” program through videos, graphics and a news article. An engaging introduction creates a foundation to help students understand infographics and their utility as a cross-curricular tool. Featured in this lesson is an interactive infographic that encourages student-driven discovery and promotes higher level thinking skills.  Video clips enrich the lesson by providing a balance between data analysis and the personal experiences of stop and frisk. Extension activities and related lesson plans are included, and offer educators context and depth to this important topic.

Subjects

Government and Civics, Social Issues, Math and English Language Arts

Estimated time

One 90 minute class period

Grade level

Middle and High School*

Warm up

Stop and Frisk, Infographics and Sharknados

  1. Ask students what they know about the police procedure “Stop, Question and Frisk” or more commonly called “Stop and Frisk”.  Asking students for the answers to “Who, what, where, when, why and how” is a good place to start.
  2. Watch Stop and Frisk: The High School Senior  (4:17) which comes from Communities United for Police Reform, a community organization dedicated to empowering and educating the local community about police reform.
      * For High School students pass out “Stop and Frisk: An in Depth Introduction” and allow students to read the article and answer the questions in pairs.
  3. Tell students they are going to learn more about Stop and Frisk in a moment, but first you want to teach them about infographics so they can be comfortable using them later in an activity. Hand out Interactive Infographic – All the Stops” worksheet and read the definition of infographics aloud to students. They will use the worksheet again later in the Main Activity step 4.
  4. Show “Intro to Infographics” PowerPoint slides 1 and 2 on infographics to the students and pose to them the question “How do we make regular old data tell a story instead of just putting numbers on a page?”
  5. Explain to them that they are going to use an infographic to learn about a very important topic………..Go to slide 3 – SHARKNADO! Click on image and watch to a short video clip that explains the theory of SHARKNADOS (click on the graphic and the hyper-linked video will pop up)
  6. Move to slide 4 and read the description of the infographic on slide 5.  Then go to slide 5 and look at the SHARKNADO infographic with students and point out its features and what it is telling you.
  7. Explain that good infographics are able to show data but in a visually beautiful way that tells a story and makes the results of the data very clear.

allthe stops

Main Activity

Stop and Frisk Infographic

  1. Explain to students that they are going to study Stop and Frisk in more depth using a powerful infographic, but first are going to get some more background on the police procedure.
  2. Hand out the “Stop and Frisk: Introduction to the Numbers” Washington Post article to students and read aloud the text and the graphs.
  3. Ask students which graph was the easiest to understand and which made the least sense and why? On the board rank the graphics and then have a short classroom discussion about why certain graphs and charts were easier to understand then others. Prompt them to keep the Washington Post article in the back of their mind so they can compare the two ways the data is presented later.
  4. Tell students that they are going to follow the story of Stop and Frisk through the eyes of Brooklyn Community Arts & Media High School (BCAM) students and as well as through an interactive infographic called “All the Stops”. Students will watch a video clip and then explore one section of the infographic at a time, watch the next video and so on.  You may allow students to complete on their own if there are an adequate number of computers for either individuals or groups.  If you do not have computers for the class simply look at the infographic and video clips together on the board.  Here is the order:
    1. Direct students to the infographic  All the Stops and let them complete the questions about the Introduction
    2. Play Clip 1 from the BCAM documentary about Stop and Frisk.
    3. Direct students to section 2 of the infographic – The Suspected – and have them answer the questions for that section.
    4. Play Clip 2 from the BCAM documentary about Stop and Frisk.
    5. Direct students to section 3 of the infographic – The Stops - and have them answer the questions for that section.
    6. Play Clip 3 from the BCAM documentary about Stop and Frisk.
    7. Direct students to section 4 of the infographic – The Outcome - and have them answer the questions for that section.
    8. Play Clip 4 from the BCAM documentary about Stop and Frisk.
  5. Once students have seen the last clip direct them to Part 2 – Writing the story and have them complete the following task (instructions are on their paper too):
    1. Circle any answer you interpreted from the infographic that you felt really stood out and told a powerful fact about the data.
    2. Write a thoughtful response explaining the story of the infographic – the most important facts you learned from it- and make sure to include answers  to the questions below:
      • Look over all the questions that you circled- when you look at them together as facts in a story what do they tell you?
      • Is there a story here? Do you see injustice?
      • Do you see one group of people being singled out?  What does the data tell you when you look at the most important facts together?
      • Was the infographic easier to understand than the Washington Post article?
  6. As a class debrief around the following questions:
    • How can and infographic be helpful in telling the story of data?
    • What conclusions can you draw about the procedure “Stop and Frisk” and which pieces of data provide the evidence to back up your claims?
    • What should be done about “Stop and Frisk?”

Extension Activities and Related Lesson Plans

1. Lessons and activities created by teacher/artist Jessica Valoris of Brooklyn Community Arts & Media High School and selected for their depth and enrichment on the history and personal reflection of race.

2. Lesson plan on community organizer Van Jones from the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights’ education curriculum Speak Truth To Power

3. Extension activities from NewsHour Extra for math, English, technology and graphic design.


Special thanks to the students of Brooklyn Community Arts & Media High School and teacher Adam Mendola for allowing NewsHour Extra to use their video on Stop and Frisk.

Additional thanks to Thai Da Silva for video editing on this project. 

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  • Common Core Standards

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    Relevant National Standards:
    • CCSS.Math.Content.HSN-Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays.
    • CCSS.Math.Content.HSN-Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling.
    • CCSS.Math.Content.HSS-IC.B.5 Use data from a randomized experiment to compare two treatments; use simulations to decide if differences between parameters are significant.
    • CCSS.Math.Content.HSS-IC.B.6 Evaluate reports based on data.
    • CCSS.Math.Content.7.RP.A.2 Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities.
    • CCSS.Math.Content.7.G.B.4 Know the formulas for the area and circumference of a circle and use them to solve problems; give an informal derivation of the relationship between the circumference and area of a circle.
    • CCSS.Math.Content.7.G.B.6 Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, volume and surface area of two- and three-dimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, and right prisms
    • .

    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.7.1 Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.7.2 Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.7.3 Analyze the interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in a text (e.g., how ideas influence individuals or events, or how individuals influence ideas or events).
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.7.7 Compare and contrast a text to an audio, video, or multimedia version of the text, analyzing each medium’s portrayal of the subject (e.g., how the delivery of a speech affects the impact of the words).
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.7.8 Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.7.9 Analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing different evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1 Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.2 Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3 Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories).
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.7 Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e.g., print or digital text, video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.8 Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.7.1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.7.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.7.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.8.1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.8.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.8.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.7.2 Analyze the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.7.3 Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.8.2 Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind its presentation.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.8.3 Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence and identifying when irrelevant evidence is introduced.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.1 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.2 Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.3 Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.7 Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.8 Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.11-12.1 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.11-12.2 Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.11-12.3 Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.11-12.5 Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.9-10.1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.9-10.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.9-10.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.9-10.2 Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.9-10.3 Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.2 Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.3 Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used.

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