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November 19, 2013

The Gettysburg Address – How History is Made

By Katie Gould, Teacher Resource Producer for the PBS NewsHour Extra

Tuesday November 19 marks the 150th anniversary of what many historians say is among the best and most important speeches given in the United States. In this lesson, students learn about and evaluate the hallowed 272-word document spoken by President Abraham Lincoln.

Subjects

History, civics and government, English

Estimated Time

One 45 minute class period

Grade Levels

Middle School and High School

Warm Up Activity

What do you know about the Gettysburg Address?

Prompt students for the “who, what, where, when and why” of the address.

Fill in the gaps of information by watching the History Channel’s Introduction to the Gettysburg Address below.

Main Activity

Evaluating the Gettysburg Address

Pass out copies of ReadWriteThink’s “Oral Presentation Rubric” and review it with students. When they watch the Gettysburg Address have them keep in mind the things that make a speech great and have them grade the reenactment of Lincoln’s address.

Pass out copies of the Gettysburg Address to students and then let them follow along as they watch the Presidential Lincoln Library and Museum’s reenactment of the Gettysburg Address below.

Ask students to share the scores they gave the reenactment of the Gettysburg Address and ask students who were on either extreme to explain to the class their thought process.

Pass out “Retraction for our 1863 editorial calling Gettysburg Address ‘silly remarks’” resource to students and explain to students that not everyone always agreed that the Gettysburg Address was  one of the greatest speeches in the history of the United States.

Pass out the original 1963 article, “A Voice from the Dead,” by the Patriot and Union Newspaper.

Ask students what they think of the criticisms from the article.

  • Were they right?
  • If they were wrong, how do you think they made that mistake?
  • How can we predict what speeches or events are going to become historical?
  • If you had to think back on your life and choose an event that would make history what would it be?

Writing Prompt

  • Write a persuasive paper either defending the Gettysburg Address as one of the best speeches in American history, or arguing that it was not. You may use your rubric for examples of its greatness as an oration, but make sure to also speak to the context and historicity of the event too.
  • Imagine that you were in attendance of the Gettysburg Address. Write a narration that includes your reaction to the oratory as well as breaking down what the speech says to you as someone living in during the Civil War.

Other Materials

Use this account of the Patriot and Union for more depth about the review and the history that follows it.

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  • Common Core Standards

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    Relevant National Standards:
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.7.1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.8.1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.9-10.1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.7.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.8.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.9-10.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.7.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.8.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.9-10.1 Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.1 Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11–12 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

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