part of Daoud's reforms, women are allowed to attend university and enter the
Afghan Communist Party secretly forms. The group's principal leaders are Babrak
Karmal and Nur Mohammad Taraki.
overthrows the last king, Mohammed Zahir Shah, in a military coup. Khan's regime,
the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan, comes to power. Khan abolishes the
monarchy and names himself president. The Republic of Afghanistan is established
with firm ties to the USSR.
proposes a new constitution that grants women rights and works to modernize the
largely communist state. He also cracks down on opponents, forcing many suspected
of not supporting Khan out of the government.
is killed in a communist coup. Nur Mohammad Taraki, one of the founding members
of the Afghan Communist Party, takes control of the country as president, and
Babrak Karmal is named deputy prime minister. They proclaim independence from
Soviet influence, and declare their policies to be based on Islamic principles,
Afghan nationalism and socioeconomic justice. Taraki signs a friendship treaty
with the Soviet Union. But a rivalry between Taraki and Hafizullah Amin, another
influential communist leader, leads to fighting between the two sides.
the same time, conservative Islamic and ethnic leaders who objected to social
changes introduced by Khan begin an armed revolt in the countryside. In June,
the guerrilla movement Mujahadeen is created to battle the Soviet-backed government.