formed Islamic militia, the Taliban, rises to power on promises of peace. Most
Afghans, exhausted by years of drought, famine and war, approve of the Taliban
for upholding traditional Islamic values. The Taliban outlaw cultivation of poppies
for the opium trade, crack down on crime, and curtail the education and employment
of women. Women are required to be fully veiled and are not allowed outside alone.
Islamic law is enforced via public executions and amputations. The United States
refuses to recognize the authority of the Taliban.
drought devastates farmers and makes many rural areas uninhabitable. More than
1 million Afghans flee to neighboring Pakistan, where they languish in squalid
Taliban publicly executes Najibullah.
Ethnic groups in the north, under
Masood's Northern Alliance, and the south, aided in part by Hamid Karzai, continue
to battle the Taliban for control of the country.
al-Qaida's bombings of two American embassies in Africa, President Clinton orders
cruise missile attacks against bin Laden's training camps in Afghanistan. The
attacks miss the Saudi and other leaders of the terrorist group.
now considered an international terrorist, bin Laden is widely believed to be
hiding in Afghanistan, where he is cultivating thousands of followers in terrorist
training camps. The United States demands that bin Laden be extradited to stand
trial for the embassy bombings. The Taliban decline to extradite him. The United
Nations punishes Afghanistan with sanctions restricting trade and economic development.