June, the Loya Jirga, or grand council, elects U.S.-backed Hamid Karzai as interim
leader. Karzai chooses the members of his government who will serve until 2004,
when the government is required to organize elections.
increased violence, NATO takes over security in Kabul in August. The effort is
the security organization's first-ever commitment outside of Europe.
Loya Jirga adopts a new constitution following input from nearly 500,000 Afghans,
some of whom participate in public meetings in villages. The new constitution
calls for a president and two vice presidents, but the office of prime minister
is removed at the last minute. The official languages, according to the constitution,
are Pashto and Dari. Also, the new constitution calls for equality for women.
elections are held. More than 10.5 million Afghans register to vote and choose
among 18 presidential candidates, including interim leader Karzai. Karzai is elected
with 55 percent of the vote.
nation holds its first parliamentary elections in more than 30 years. The peaceful
vote leads to the parliament's first meeting in December.
continuing fighting between Taliban and al-Qaida fighters and the Afghan government
forces, NATO expands its peacekeeping operation to the southern portion of the
country. After the forces take over from American-led troops, Taliban fighters
launch a bloody wave of suicide attacks and raids against the international troops.
The Afghan government and NATO confirm that Taliban commander Mullah Dadullah was killed during a U.S.-led operation in southern Afghanistan.
The international community pledges more than $15 billion in aid to Afghanistan at a donors' conference in Paris, while Afghan President Hamid Karzai promises to fight corruption in the government.
President Barack Obama names Richard Holbrooke as a special envoy to Afghanistan and Pakistan. Mr. Obama announces a new strategy for the Afghanistan war that would dispatch more military and civilian trainers to the country, in addition to the 17,000 more combat troops he previously ordered. The strategy also includes assistance to Pakistan in its fight against militants.
President Barack Obama accepts Gen. Stanley McChrystal's
resignation as the top commander in Afghanistan, over
critical comments he made in a Rolling Stone article,
and nominates Gen. David Petraeus, head of U.S. Central
Command, as his replacement.
U.S. forces overtake a compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan,
and kill al-Qaida leader Osama bin Laden. For more
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