Article 370 enacted
The Indian government enacted Article 370 to its constitution, granting Jammu-Kashmir special state status and increased autonomy.
Pakistan signed an agreement with the United States saying Washington will come to Pakistan's aid in a time of war. Islamabad had agreed to host U.S. military bases; its location was strategic in America's Cold War with the Soviet Union. That relationship was renewed in 1959.
India, meanwhile, practiced a policy of nonalignment, refusing to ally itself with any bloc, especially those involving the United States or Soviet Union.
August 1965 - Second India-Pakistan war over Kashmir
Bursts of violence in August 1965 between Pakistanis and Indians ignited the second major war between the bitter neighbors. The regions of Punjab and Kashmir endured the majority of ground battles and air strikes.
September 1965 - U.N. resolution calling for cease-fire
After both sides suffered thousands of casualties and the war reached a stalemate, the U.N. Security Council passed another resolution in September 1965 calling for a cease-fire and the withdrawal of Pakistani and Indian troops.
Jan. 10, 1966 - Tashkent Agreement signed, troops withdrawn
Pakistani President Ayub Khan and Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri signed the Tashkent Agreement in the former Soviet state Uzbekistan. The agreement ordered both India and Pakistan to withdraw their troops by February of that year to their pre-war borders.
Third India-Pakistan war, Bangladesh breaks away
India and Pakistan battled over East Pakistan, now Bangladesh, in their third major war. Pakistan accused India of supporting Bengali separatists. After many casualties, Pakistan agreed to a cease-fire with Bengali troops and officially recognized the sovereignty of Bangladesh.
July 2, 1972 - Simila Pact signed, war over Bangladesh ends
Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Indira Ghandi signed the Simla Pact to formally end the war over Bangladesh.
The Simla Pact also reinstated the Kashmir "line of control" similar to the one created by the 1949 U.N. resolution and Karachi Agreement. Pakistan, however, lodged several complaints with the United Nations alleging cease-fire violations by Indian troops.
May 18, 1974 - India tests first nuclear device, Pakistan begins nuclear program
India tested its first nuclear device in May. Pakistan began its nuclear program the same year, with a bitter arms race developing between the two nations.
December 1979 - Soviet Union invades Afghanistan
During the Cold War, Pakistan remained allied with the United States against Soviet advances into northern Afghanistan and Central Asia.