- Child models are currently regulated underthe U.S. Department of Education, not the U.S. Department of Labor.
- The advocacy group Model Alliance surveyed 85 female fashion models in the United States in 2012. The average age of respondents was 26, indicating an older-than-average pool of models. The survey showed that the majority of models begin working between 13 and 16 years of age.
- The Council of Fashion Designers of America (CFDA) is a not-for-profit trade organization for top fashion designers in the United States. While the CFDA recommends that designers not use models younger than 16 (and suggests that designers check ID to verify age), it does not have the power to enforce this guideline, which means many designers continue to employ underage models. One of the guidelines under the CFDA’s health initiative reads in part:
Support the well being of younger individuals by not hiring models under the age of 16 for runway shows; not allowing models under the age of 18 to work past midnight at fittings or shoots; and providing regular breaks and rest.
Caption: Nadya, the 13-year-old model sent to Japan in Girl Model. Credit: A. Sabin
» Aleksander, Irina. “Expanding her efforts to be a role model.” The New York Times, August 31, 2012.
» Bureau of Labor Statistics. “Occupational Outlook Handbook.”
» Krupnick, Ellie. CFDA Health Guidelines for Models Released, Focus on Age & Eating Disorders.” Huffington Post, January 27, 2012.
» Mears, Ashley. Pricing Beauty: The Making of a Fashion Model. University of California Press, 2011.
» The Model Alliance. “Child Models.”
» New York City Economic Development Corporation.
» Nikas, Joanna. Documentary Is Another Voice in the Underage Model Conversation.” The New York Times, April 9, 2012.
» Schama, Chloe. “The Skin Trade.” New Republic, September 19, 2011.
» Springer, Sarah. Can There Ever Again Be an All-American Beauty?” CNN, April 6, 2012.
» Wilson, Eric. “Checking Models’ IDs at the Door.” The New York Times, February 8, 2012.