In this lesson, students examine common perceptions of immigrants and refugees with the goal of debunking them using the actual poignant stories and struggles of people who have left their homelands to resettle in very new places. Students revisit perceptions after delving into the journeys, challenges, dreams and goals of those who have left their countries to build better lives.
Meet the young students in Mr. Zingg's integration class, who came to Switzerland by planes, trains and automobiles--and even by rubber boats. Separated from their families and in many cases traumatized by events in their home countries, these migrants from Afghanistan, Cameroon, Serbia and Venezuela already have long and arduous journeys behind them. Neuland ("New Territory") follows the adolescents over two years as they learn a new language, prepare themselves for employment and reveal their innermost hopes and dreams. But as the end of school draws near, each student must face the same difficult question: Is there a place for me in this country?
POV offers a lending library of DVDs that you can borrow anytime during the school year--FOR FREE! Get started by joining our Community Network.
- By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:
- Reflect on their perceptions of immigrants and refugees
- Identify the challenges immigrants and refugees face in their homelands and in their new lands
- Recognize the common circumstances international immigrants and refugees face
- Reflect on what influences the paths immigrants and refugees take in their new lands
- Discuss how to support immigrants and refugees as they try to make new lives in new places
GRADE LEVELS: 9-12
- Film clips from Neuland and equipment on which to show them
- Two-by-eight-inch strips (or in any case strips large enough that students can write on them) of poster board. Each student will need 1-3 strips.
- Masking tape
ESTIMATED TIME NEEDED
Two 50-minute class periods
Video clips provided with this lesson are from Neuland.
Clip 1: "Coming From and Travelling To" (2:26 min.) The clip starts 8:28 with the teacher saying, "Yes, please name the country." It ends at 10:54 with Ehsanullah saying, "One year."
Clip 2: "How it Really Is" (2:03 min.) The clip starts at 31:41 with the teacher asking, "What's the film today?" It ends at 33:44 with the student saying, "You have seen it." (Warning: This scene contains violent images.)
Clip 3: "Pray for Me" (1:50 min.) The clip starts at 11:06 with Ehsanullah on the phone saying, "Hello, Mother." It ends at 12:56 with the line going dead.
Clip 4: "Thinking about Jobs" (1:33 min.) The clip starts at 13:25 with the teacher's voice in the background saying, "Many children have a dream job." The clip ends at 14:58 with the teacher asking, "You have no dreams?"
Clip 5: "Asylum Rejected" (5:40 min.) The clip starts 15:18 with a translation of a document and Ehsanullah reading, "Thus the ruling applies." It ends at 20:58 with a view of Ehsanullah's face in response to the teacher's statement "And then you get stuck."
Clip 6: "I Can Do It" (3:22 min.) The clip starts at 23:40 with Nazlije at the chalkboard writing on a timeline. It ends at 27:02 with Nazlije smiling, after talking with her friends.
Clip 7: "Nazlije's Dream?" (1:09 min.) The clip starts 42:52 with the teacher saying, "Nazlije has a dream." It ends at 44:01 with Nazlije's uncle asking, "What do you want to do now?"
Clip 8: "Finding a 'Taster'" (1:05 min.) The clip starts at 47:20 with Nazlije on the phone saying, "Yes, good morning." It ends at 48:25 with a woman on the phone telling a student, "But you won't with so little German."
1. Place poster board strips, markers and masking tape in a central location. Invite students to write down one or more than one statement, one per strip, that reflects common perceptions about immigrants. These perceptions don't have to be personal but can be based on stereotypes, general knowledge, facts and so forth. The statements can be positive or negative, and they may even be written as questions. Have students place their strips in one location. Shuffle them thoroughly (to maintain student anonymity) and then ask students to take a few strips each to post around the room with masking tape.
2. Instruct students to move around the room to read the statements, making mental notes of common themes. Invite students to share the themes and what they suggest about people's perceptions of immigrants. Have students discuss whether the themes are mostly positive or negative; what they say about immigrants' lives and circumstances; and what they don't say, meaning what information (why people leave their countries, goals, dreams, desire to succeed and contribute and so on) is missing that might enlighten and change perceptions.
3. Tell students they will delve into the stories of immigrants and refugees as they watch clips from the film Neuland, about students in a two-year government-funded integration program for young immigrants in Switzerland. Explain that while this film takes place in Switzerland, the stories of the featured young people mirror the stories of immigrants and refugees around the world. Be sure to explain the difference between an immigrant and a refugee:
- A refugee is someone who has been forced to flee his or her country because of persecution, war or violence. A refugee has a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership in a particular social group. Most likely, [refugees] cannot return home or are afraid to do so. War and ethnic, tribal and religious violence are leading causes of refugees fleeing their countries. (UNHCR: The UN Refugee Agency: http://www.unrefugees.org/what-is-a-refugee/)
- Most refugees and displaced persons return to their communities when peace and stability return to their countries. When conditions in countries of origin remain unstable or there is a danger of persecution upon repatriation, some refugees are able to stay in a refugee settlement in another country. Unfortunately, many host countries are unable to accept refugees permanently. Resettlement in a third country, such as the United States, is the last option, and is available to only a tiny fraction of the world's refugees. (International Rescue Committee: http://www.rescue.org/frequently-asked-questions-about-refugees-and-resettlement)
- An immigrant is a person who has chosen to settle permanently in another country. http://www.cnn.com/2014/07/15/us/immigrant-refugee-definition/
- The difference between a refugee and an immigrant: A refugee is forced to flee for his or her life. An immigrant chooses to move to another country. http://www.cnn.com/2014/07/15/us/immigrant-refugee-definition/
4. Distribute the New Lives graphic organizer. Instruct students to review the chart and take notes in the relevant sections as they watch the clips. For example, under languages, they can note the different languages the students speak, what is similar in terms of their language goals and challenges they face in their new lands, and how their language skills might impede their journeys toward resettlement and finding work.
5. Show the film clips. For best viewing and discussion, show three to four clips at a time and then discuss their main themes. If desired, intersperse viewing with one or more of the relevant discussion questions in Step 6 below.
6. After viewing the clips, pose some (that were not used in Step 5) or all of the following discussion questions:
- Why is the "journey" for young immigrants and refugees in a new homeland particularly hard? Which factors contribute to their challenges?
- How do the featured individuals respond to adversity? How do they build their resilience?
- Do you think the young people in the film, and other immigrants and refugees in general, want to stay in their new lands? Explain.
- What influences the decisions immigrants and refugees make once in their new homelands? Do these decisions always reflect their desires, dreams and goals? Discuss.
- Has your perception of immigrants and refugees changed based on the film's stories? How?
- Why might people have negative views of immigrants and refugees? What do they need to know in order better to understand the true situation of these individuals?
7. Explore with students what types of support they believe can benefit refugees and immigrants as they resettle.
- Describe the various aspects of the integration program shown in the film.
- What else do the young people in the film and others like them need in order to make a go of their new environments successfully and comfortably?
8. Have students consider the range of assistance that their school can provide for immigrants and refugees. Students can draw on what they learned from the film, from fellow students who are integrating and resettling themselves, from programs in their community and so on. Instruct them to write recommendations to the school. Those recommendations should include suggestions for how they can work in partnership with the school for the provision of services and in changing the negative perspectives fellow students might have about refugees and immigrants.
1. Leaving Their Homeland
Some of the young people featured in Neuland have left their homelands because of traumatizing events, such as war and political persecution. Ask students to examine the conditions in nations such as Serbia and Afghanistan (nations from which some of the young people in the film have come) to learn more about the events that have forced people to uproot their lives. Or, students can examine conditions in nations from which people in their community and/or school have come. Each student can conduct individual research on a nation of their choice, with all students comparing and contrasting nations afterward to find commonalities. They can discuss whether conditions in these countries are likely to change for the better, and if yes, whether immigrants or refugees with new lives in new places will return (or have returned) to their homelands. Sources to jumpstart the exploration include:
- Amnesty International: "Refworld"
- Fox News Latino: "Thousands of Venezuelans Have Gotten Political Asylum in the U.S."
- UNHCR: The UN Refugee Agency: "Afghanistan"
- UNHCR: The UN Refugee Agency: "Serbia"http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49e48d9f6.html
2. Preparing for the Workforce
For an immigrant or refugee, coming to a new place can be challenging on many levels, from learning an unfamiliar language to negotiating housing. Even more difficult is finding work, especially when one is not fully fluent in the local language; lacks permanent residency; needs to learn new skills; and does not have connections. This is the case for the youth featured in Neuland, who are shown negotiating these challenges through a specialized program that prepares them to adjust to life in Switzerland.
Discuss with students the challenges the youth face as they seek positions for a "taster" week to try out local businesses. Have them consider whether young people in America encounter somewhat similar challenges as they seek apprenticeships, internships and jobs, and ask them to describe those commonalties. Given these challenges, what are some steps young people can take before they begin this search in order to be "workforce" ready. For example, what should they be doing in school? What skills do they need to develop? What contacts might they make before they do search? Essentially, what would make the process smoother and more successful?
- Bureau of Labor Statistics: "Career Planning for High Schoolers"
- Education Planner: "Career Planning Checklist: Middle School"
- Education World: "Tomorrow's Workforce: What Students Need"
- The Huffington Post: "How to Prepare Young People for Jobs of the Future"
3. Assisting in Resettlement
For refugees and immigrants, education is often part of the process of settling in a new land, and education may be especially relevant when it comes to learning language, negotiating the workplace and so on. Students can explore the various types of programs that serve these groups. They can then determine what basic elements should be standard across programs to ensure successful resettlement. Resources to jumpstart this exploration include:
- Educational Leadership: "Building the Resilience of Refugees"
- Fox News: "Summer Academy Prepares Young Refugees From Around the World for Success in NYC Schools"
- International Rescue Committee
- MENTOR: "Mentoring Immigrant & Refugee Youth: A Toolkit for Program Coordinators"
- U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants
- World Relief
4. Leaving Home
Students can write personal pieces about their actual experiences of moving to new places, being refugees or immigrants and so on to include in an anthology created to change negative perceptions of refugees and immigrants resettling in their community.
You can find additional resources at www.pbs.org/pov/Neuland/. The POV site includes a general discussion guide with additional activity ideas.
POV: Media Literacy Questions for Analyzing POV Films
This list of questions provides a useful starting point for leading rich discussions that challenge students to think critically about documentaries.
American Immigration Council
Amnesty International: "In Search of Safety"
Do Something: "11 Facts About Refugees"
DW: "Young Refugees From Africa Face Up to the Challenges of Life in Europe"
The Salvation Army: "Refugees and Asylum Seekers Factsheet"
MENTOR: "Mentoring Immigrant & Refugee Youth: A Toolkit for Program Coordinators"
Migration Policy Institute (MPI)
PBS NewsHour: "UN Report: Global Refugee Crisis Has Hit All-time High"
POV: Special Flight
Teaching Tolerance: "Refugees"
UNHCR: The UN Refugee Agency
Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects (http://www.corestandards.org/read-the-standards/)
SL.9-10.4 Present information, findings and supporting evidence clearly, concisely and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance and style are appropriate to purpose, audience and task.
SL.11-12.4 Present information, findings and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed and the organization, development, substance and style are appropriate to purpose, audience and a range of formal and informal tasks.
SL.9-10.1 Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
SL.11-12.1 Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11-12 topics, texts and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
Content Knowledge: (http://www.mcrel.org/standards-benchmarks/) a compilation of content standards and benchmarks for K-12 curriculum by McREL (Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning).
Geography, Standard 9: Understands the nature, distribution and migration of human populations on Earth's surface.
Benchmark 3: Level IV (Grade 9-12) Knows how international migrations are shaped by push and pull factors (e.g., political conditions, economic incentives, religious values, family ties).
Behavioral Studies, Standard 1: Understands that group and cultural influences contribute to human development, identity. and behavior.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Michele Israel owns Educational Writing & Consulting (www.micheleisrael.com), where she works with large and small educational, nonprofit and media organizations to bolster products and programs. Her rich career spans more than 25 years of successful experience developing educational materials and resources, designing and facilitating training, generating communication materials and grant proposals and assisting in organizational and program development. Her long list of clients includes Tiffany & Co., Frost Valley YMCA, Teaching Tolerance, the Public Broadcasting Service, the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, WETA Public Television, Religion & Ethics NewsWeekly and the Harm Reduction Coalition.