Robert Lou Benson
Serves with the Office of Security of the National Security Agency. A former U.S. Air Force officer, Benson earned his degree in history at the University of Wisconsin. He has written and lectured extensively on Venona.

Lavrenti Beria (1899-1953)
One of the most dreaded and odious figures of the Stalin era, he headed the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs, or NKVD, from 1938 onwards, overseeing the vast machinery of state terror that included the Gulag camp system and kept the entire country in a state of perpetual fear of what one careless word could lead to. So powerful and sinister was he that shortly after Stalin's death, a group of Politburo members, including Khrushchev, fearing that Beria was plotting a takeover and that they would soon be eliminated in his bid for power, organized a secret counter-coup and had him summarily arrested and shot.

Jack Bjoze
Former member of the Communist Party of the USA. He headed the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, a contingent of American volunteers who fought for the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War. Bjoze made friends with Morris Cohen while in Spain, and later introduced him to Russians in New York, who recruited Cohen as a spy of the USSR.

George Blake (1923-       )
British intelligence agent and Soviet double-agent. Blake first began to cooperate with Soviet intelligence while stationed in Korea in 1953. Discovered in 1961, he spent five years in prison before escaping and fleeing to Moscow, where he now works at the Institute of Economics.

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Earl Browder (1891-1973)
General Secretary of the Communist Party of the USA from 1930 to 1945, candidate for President of the USA in 1936 and 1940.

Guy Burgess (1911-1963)
British intelligence agent and Soviet double-agent. Part of a ring of Cambridge-educated British intellectuals who sympathized with the Soviet cause and spied for the USSR during WWII and the early part of the Cold War while working at the highest levels of British intelligence. Tipped off by co-conspirator Kim Philby in 1951 that his cover was about to be blown, Burgess and Donald Maclean, another member of the group, disappeared, later resurfacing in Moscow, where they spent the rest of their lives.

Svetlana Chervonnaya
Ph.D. historian. She heads the Department of Domestic Policy Studies at the Insitute of USA and Canada in the Russian Academy of Sciences. She interviewed Morris Cohen.

Morris Cohen a.k.a. Peter Kroger (1910-1993)
Picture of a young Morris CohenSoviet spy. An American Communist, Cohen fought as a Republican volunteer in the Spanish Civil War. Upon his return to the US, Cohen was recruited by Soviet intelligence and, together with his wife, Lona a.k.a. Helen, helped pass Manhattan Project secrets to the USSR. When their cover was blown in 1951, they fled to Moscow. In 1955, the Cohens came illegally to the UK on a spying mission. Arrested by the British, they were later returned to the USSR as part of a prisoner exchange--the only time the Soviets had done such an exchange for foreigners.

Lona Cohen a.k.a. Helen Kroger
Picture of a young Lona CohenSoviet Spy. An American Communist recruited in New York by Soviet Intelligence with her husband Morris Cohen. Accredited for receiving the "Kleenex Box" from Ted Hall, which held the blue prints for the Atomic Bomb. They moved to Moscow from America in 1951, when their cover was blown In 1955 they were arrested in Britain for spying. Lona was sentenced to 25 years, later she was returned to USSR, with her husband and died in a Moscow hospital.

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Felix Dzerzhinsky (1877-1926)
One of V. I. Lenin's Bolshevik revolutionary comrades, Dzerzhinsky spent time in prison and exile under the tsars, and later held numerous high-ranking posts in the Communist Party and the Soviet government. He is best remembered for organizing the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counterrevolution and Sabotage or "Cheka"--forerunner to the notorious NKVD and KGB machines of repression. Despite pursuing a policy of ruthlessly and mercilessly destroying all opponents of the regime, Dzerzhinsky claimed that a good Cheka worker should not be cold and heartless, but should always have a sense of human compassion. Remarkably, Dzerzhinsky never managed to run afoul of Stalin as the latter consolidated his power after Lenin's death.

Alexander Feklisov (1914-       )
Retired career KGB agent. In 1997, he announced that, while attached to the Soviet Consulate in New York, he was the Soviet intelligence officer who had recruited and handled Julius Rosenberg and his network of spies. He claimed to have had over 50 meetings with Rosenberg in 1943-1946, but that Ethel Rosenberg never met with any Soviet agents and did not directly participate in her husband's activities, although she probably knew about them. Later in his career, Feklisov, now working under the name of Fomin, was the KGB resident in Washington in the early 1960s, and came up with the idea for resolving the Cuban Missile Crisis whereby the Soviets would remove their missiles in return for a US promise not to invade the island.

Enrico Fermi (1901-1954)
Italian physicist, who received the 1938 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on neutron bombardment. That same year, Fermi emigrated to the United States, and was instrumental in the creation of the first-ever sustained nuclear reaction, on December 2, 1942 in a makeshift lab under the bleachers of the University of Chicago football stadium. Later, he was one of the key scientists involved in the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bomb.

Klaus Fuchs (1911-1988)
German-born physicist and Soviet spy. Fuchs was a young Communist who fled to England when the Nazis began to imprison their political enemies. While in England, Fuchs completed his studies to become a physicist, and obtained a research position at the University of Edinburgh, where he worked on the British atomic bomb program. In 1943, Fuchs was transferred to the US to work on the Manhattan Project, eventually ending up at Los Alamos. Throughout this time, Fuchs was transferring highly sensitive information to the Soviets, first via Harry Gold, and later through Alexander Feklisov. In 1948, when the American VENONA program finally succeeded in deciphering Soviet diplomatic cables, it was discovered that the USSR had been receiving information on the Manhattan Project throughout the 1940s. Eventually the finger pointed at Fuchs, who was already back in England. Although he is not as well known as the Rosenbergs, Fuchs actually passed on considerably more sensitive information to the Soviets than they did. He was sentenced to 14 years in prison, the maximum allowed for passing military secrets to a friendly nation, and released after nine years to emigrate to East Germany, where he resumed his career as a physicist.

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Harry Gold
In 1935, Gold, a nondescript chemist working for a sugar company, decided to act on his Communist sympathies by stealing industrial secrets from his factory and passing them on to the Soviets. While it is unlikely that his actions caused any irreparable harm to the US sugar refining industry, his work as Klaus Fuchs' go-between to the Soviets when the latter was a physicist working on the Manhattan Project caused considerably more harm to national security than did the spying by the more famous Rosenbergs. When the FBI caught up with him, Gold surrendered meekly and ended up spending 30 years in prison.

David Greenglass (1922-       )
One of the conspirators in the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg case. Greenglass was Ethel's brother, an Army machinist who, despite his avowed Communist leanings, was assigned to work on the Manhattan Project, first at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and later at Los Alamos, New Mexico. While at Los Alamos, he passed information about the Manhattan Project to Julius. When questioned about his activities by the FBI, Greenglass turned state's evidence against the Rosenbergs in return for immunity for his wife, who had served as his courier.

Theodore Alvin Hall (1925-       )
Youngest Atomic Physicist at Los Alamos, later pioneering microbiologist at Cavendish Labratories, Cambridge University, Great Britian. The man who stole the plans for the world's first atomic bomb and gave them to the Russians. As a brilliant student at P.S. 173 in New York (he skipped three grades by junior high) Ted Hall fell under the influence of the political radicalism his brother Ed brought home from CCNY. In the late 30's Ted attend New York's powerhouse "magnet" high school "Townsend Harris" where he was horrified and influenced by the march of German Nazis across Europe. Hall entered Harvard as 16 year old. He was very active in the communist oriented "John Reed Club" One of his professors recommended the physics whiz kid for a job at Los Alamos. Hall listened, but did not in discussions of the senior scientists on whether the atomic secret should be shared with America's ally, The Soviet Union. Hall acted on his own, he volunteered to supply the Soviet Union with information. As agent "MLAD", the youngster, he passed crucial and specific drawings of how the atomic bomb worked to agents working on ENORMOUS. Although questioned by the FBI after the war, Hall was never arrested. He earned a doctorate in atomic physics after the war and then began a new career as microbiological cell researcher. Invented the "Hall Method" for mapping cell concentrations. From 1962 on, lived and worked peacefully in Cambridge, England. Hall published some 166 scientific papers. He retired, honorably in 1984. The US government never charged Hall with espionage for passing Atomic secrets to agents of the Soviet Union.

Sergei Kondratyev (1923?-       )
KGB Lieutenant-General. Kondratyev began his career in Soviet intelligence in 1950, rising to hold various posts including head of the UK Department, head of the Disinformation Department, and Deputy Head of the Intelligence Service. He served as Chief Consultant to the Chairman of the KGB until 1991.

Igor Kurchatov (1902-1960)
Igor KurchatovSoviet nuclear scientist. Kurchatov was a brilliant physicist and is regarded as the father of Soviet nuclear research, nuclear energy, and nuclear weapons. He was in charge of all nuclear research (primarily aimed at developing an atomic bomb as quickly as possible) in the USSR from 1943 until his death. He was buried in Red Square among the greats of the Soviet Union. The Atomic Energy Institute in Moscow which he founded is named after him, as is element 104--Kurchatovium.

Robert Lamphere
FBI agent for 14 years last 8 of which were in FBI HQ supervising some of the big Soviet spy cases of the late 40s and the early 50s. This included interviewing Klaus Fuchs in London in May of 1950. Including the case of Judith Coplon an exmployee of the Department of Justice and the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg case. After leaving the FBI in 1955 Lamphere held top positions in the Veterans Administrition and then spent 21 years as the senior vice president of a major life insurance company. After his retirement he finished writing the book entitled the "The FBI-KGB War" published by Random House in 1986.

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Vladimir Ilich Lenin
(1870-1924) Founder of the Soviet Union, one of the most influential figures of the 20th century. Unlike Stalin, Lenin's pre-October Revolution activities were principally limited to writing articles and giving speeches, both of which he did very well. A dedicated Marxist from an early age, Lenin was first arrested by the tsarist government in 1895. During his many subsequent years in exile, first in Siberia and later in various Western European capitals, he had a great deal of time to develop his own theories on revolution and to dream of putting them into practice. He was so absorbed by the idea of revolution that he had virtually no personal life to speak of, and could be absolutely merciless in his verbal attacks on ideological opponents.

Lenin did not agree with most of his fellow Marxists, who felt that the radical left should ally itself with the bourgeois liberals to overthrow the tsarist government and establish a Western-style democracy. Instead, he believed that the proper course was to radically aim for the destruction of both tsarism and the bourgeoisie simultaneously and then establish a workers' dictatorship, thereby skipping an essential step in the process envisioned by Marx. In 1903, these ideological conflicts led to a split in the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party, of which Lenin was a member, into the less radical Mensheviks and Lenin's Bolshevik faction. Impatient with the pace at which revolutionary sentiment was developing among Russia's fledgling and largely illiterate working class, Lenin decided not to wait for them and came up with the idea of the Party as a vanguard of the revolution--a hardened core of intellectual "professional revolutionaries" who knew what the workers should be doing even if the workers themselves didn't, and who would push events along in the right direction at a faster pace than they would have developed on their own.

Lenin returned to Russia in April 1917, several months after the tsar had abdicated, and immediately began giving fiery speeches inciting his listeners to the immediate overthrow of the Provisional Government. His moment came on November 7, when a Bolshevik-led insurrection took over the seat of government in St. Petersburg. Lenin became the head of the new Soviet state and set about implementing his revolutionary program by abolishing and expropriating all private property and declaring the peasants to be owners of the land they tilled and the workers owners of the factories where they toiled.

The country rapidly fell into total chaos, exacerbated by the Civil War that raged for several years as various groups, from monarchists to anarchists, tried to wrest control of the country from the Bolsheviks. Lenin was forced to make some pragmatic retreats on several ideological positions, including permitting a limited measure of private enterprise (the so-called New Economic Policy of 1921) He nevertheless continued to press forward with his vision of world revolution, including a war against bourgeois Poland, in which the Polish forces ended up nearly capturing Moscow.

Lenin ceased to be actively involved in day-to-day political affairs after a stroke in 1922, although he continued to write until his death two years later. His last works seem to suggest that he was beginning to shed some of his more radical views in the face of the reality of having to run a country instead of fomenting revolution. Lenin was entombed in a refrigerated glass sarcophagus in a mausoleum on Red Square, and was revered as an almost god-like figure throughout the history of the Soviet Union. His remains were even reverently evacuated to a safe place far from the front lines during World War II.

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Donald Maclean
British foreign service officer and Soviet double-agent. Part of a ring of Cambridge-educated British intellectuals who sympathized with the Soviet cause and spied for the USSR during WWII and the early part of the Cold War while holding high positions in the British government. Maclean headed the British Foreign Office's American Department. Tipped off by co-conspirator Kim Philby in 1951 that his cover was about to be blown, Maclean and Guy Burgess, another member of the group, disappeared, later resurfacing in Moscow, where they spent the rest of their lives.

David Major
Dean at the Centre for Counteringelligence and Security Studies has made a thirty-year commitment to the practice and study of counterintelligence, having served in top leadership roles at the FBI in Counterintelligence, as well as on the National Security Council as the Director of Counterintelligence.

Vyacheslav Molotov (1890-1986)
Soviet Foreign Minister. Molotov, an "Old Bolshevik" (he joined the Party in 1906), was one of the founders of "Pravda". In 1930-1941, he was Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars, or Prime Minister. Molotov served as the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs between 1939 and 1949, and again from 1953 to 1956, being a key participant in such momentous events as WWII, the Teheran, Yalta, and Potsdam summits, and the beginning of the Cold War nuclear arms race. He is perhaps best known for negotiating the infamous Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact non-aggression treaty that shocked the world in 1939, when sworn ideological enemies Nazi Germany and the USSR agreed not to attack one another and, in a secret protocol, to carve up Poland and the Baltic states between themselves. Hitler attacked the USSR despite the pact in 1941. Always one of Stalin's faithful lieutenants, Molotov's star faded rapidly after the former's death in 1953. Nikita Khrushchev gradually stripped him of his high government and Party posts, and appointed him ambassador to Mongolia in 1957. In 1962, he was even expelled from the Party.

Thomas More (1478-1535)
British lawyer, statesman, and intellectual. More opposed King Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon, which ultimately led to the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church. This cost him his head, but gained him sainthood as a Catholic martyr. More, Renaissance humanist who corresponded with Erasmus, is also remembered for his book "Utopia", which describes his version of an ideal state based on reason.

Robert Oppenheimer (1904-1967)
American nuclear physicist. Although he was also a brilliant theoretical scientist, Oppenheimer will always remain best known for his work as Director of the Los Alamos Science Laboratory from 1943 to 1945, in charge of the Manhattan Project to develop the first atomic bomb. After WWII, he chaired the Atomic Energy Commission's board of scientific advisors. Having in the meantime become a pacifist, he rejected a proposal to the AEC for the development of the hydrogen bomb. This being the height of the "red scare" of the McCarthy Era, Oppenheimer's hawkish opponents, including Edward Teller, responded by making insinuations about his loyalty, which ultimately led to Oppenheimer losing his security clearance in 1953, and his career in weapons development along with it. He was rehabilitated several years before his death when the AEC presented him with its highest honor, the Fermi Award.

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Oleg Penkovsky (19?? -1963)
Soviet GRU colonel and double agent. One of the most fascinating figures in the cat-and-mouse game played by Eastern and Western intelligence services during the Cold War, Penkovsky was the highest-ranking Soviet officer to ever spy for the West. Something of an idealist, he was convinced that Nikita Khrushchev's reckless bluster was inevitably leading his country to ruin and the world to a nuclear holocaust. Penkovsky provided the CIA and Britain's MI6 with invaluable data on the inner workings of Soviet intelligence. He also had access to extremely sensitive information on the Soviet Union's actual military capabilities (as opposed to what Khrushchev claimed to have), which allowed the US determine that the missiles being deployed in Cuba were less of a threat than Khrushchev claimed them to be, and permitted John Kennedy to call his bluff during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Shortly afterwards, Penkovsky was arrested, put on trial, and executed.

Kim Philby (1912-1988)
Picture of a young Kim PhilbyBritish intelligence agent and Soviet double-agent. Leader of a ring of Cambridge-educated British intellectuals who sympathized with the Soviet cause and spied for the USSR during WWII and the early part of the Cold War while working at the highest levels of British intelligence--in 1945, Philby was head of counterespionage at the MI6, Britain's foreign intelligence service, and in 1949 was assigned to be the MI6 liaison man with the CIA. He fled to Russia in 1963, where he was given a hero's welcome and a high-ranking KGB job. Philby's story inspired one of John Le Carre's most famous spy novels, "Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy".

Rufina Philby
Widow of British intelligence officer and Soviet double agent Kim Philby. She has written a book about him.

Cecil Philips
American cryptographer. Philips worked with the U.S. Army Signal Intelligence Service during World War II and played a decisive role in the VENONA project, which broke the codes used by Soviet diplomatic dispatches, leading to the discovery that spies had been leaking information on the Manhattan Project to the USSR.

Igor Prelin (1937-       )
Soviet spy. A career KGB officer since 1961, Prelin served in over two dozen countries and rose to the rank of colonel before retiring in 1991.

John Rhoades
Current Director of the Bradbury Science Museum at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico.

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Julius (1918-1953) and Ethel (1915-1953) Rosenberg
Julius RosenbergEthel RosenbergFirst US civilians executed for espionage. Both husband and wife were Communists who were accused of supplying top-secret information on the Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union in 1945-1946. They were convicted in 1951; despite worldwide pleas for clemency, President Eisenhower refused to commute their sentences.

Andrei Sakharov (1921-1989)
World-famous nuclear physicist, member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, known as "the father of the Soviet H-bomb". In his later years, Sakharov became an active anti-nuclear and human rights activist, protesting against such issues as the USSR's intention to violate the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, its treatment of political dissidents, and its involvement in Afghanistan. He thus became a celebrated dissident himself, even winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975. In 1980, in order to cut him off from his Western supporters, the government sent him into internal exile to the city of Gorky, which was closed to foreigners; this only increased his reputation abroad. In 1986, Sakharov was "pardoned" by Mikhail Gorbachev and triumphantly returned to Moscow to continue his activism. In the last year of his life, he was elected to the new, democratic Congress of People's Deputies.

Vladimir Semichastny (1924-       )
Chairman of the KGB, 1961-1967. These days, he is a popular guest on TV public-affairs talk shows in Russia.

Anatoly Sudoplatov
Historian. Son of Pavel Sudoplatov, who headed the NKVD's program to steal American atomic bomb secrets. The younger Sudoplatov currently works at Moscow State University, where, because of his close ties to such matters, he specializes in researching the activities of the Soviet secret services over the years.

Pavel Sudoplatov (1907-1995)
NKVD Lieutenant-General. Started his career with the Cheka in 1920. In 1939, he was appointed Deputy Chief of the Intelligence Service, and in 1941, was also placed in charge of subversive activities. In 1945, Sudoplatov was appointed Head of the so-called "A" Department (development of the A-bomb) In 1953, he was arrested for his close ties with Lavrenti Beria and spent 15 years in prison.

Leon Trotsky (1879-1940)
Communist revolutionary. Originally an ideological opponent of V. I. Lenin's, Trotsky had become one of his closest comrades by the time of the October Revolution, serving as People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and People's Commissar for War in the fledgling Soviet state, in which capacity he founded the Red Army. A firm believer in "permanent revolution", the idea that the Russian Revolution was only a first step towards the overthrow of capitalism throughout the world, he bitterly opposed the concept of "Socialism in one country" pursued by Stalin after Lenin's death. Stalin had him ousted from the Party in 1927 and sent into exile in 1929, from where he continued to speak out vehemently for world revolution and against Stalin and to attract a large following of like-minded radical revolutionaries. During the Great Purge show trials of the 1930s, Trotsky was ludicrously accused of being a hireling of Western Capitalists. Soviet agents finally caught up with him in Mexico City, where he was silenced forever by a well-aimed ice-pick to the skull.

Mikhail Tukhachevsky (1893-1937)
Tukhachevsky served brilliantly in the Red Army during the Civil War immediately following the October Revolution, and was one of the top military leaders in the country afterwards, rising to First Deputy People's Commissar of Defense in 1936. In 1937, he fell victim to the sweeping purge of the Soviet military that left it so unprepared for WWII. Tukhachevsky's crime had been to spend a few years at school in Germany before the Revolution. Because of this, Stalin accused him of being a German spy and had him shot. He was posthumously rehabilitated after Stalin's death.

Boris Vannikov (1897-1962)
People's Commissar of Armaments during WWII. He was one of the key organizational figures in the Soviet atomic and hydrogen bomb projects, working closely with NKVD chief Lavrenti Beria and nuclear physicist Igor Kurchatov, the father of the Soviet A-bomb.

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Gábor Beszterczey, Ph.D.
Abamedia
Web Site Producer
RED FILES
Gábor Beszterczey, Ph.D., is Abamedia's Director of European Business Development. In this capacity he represents the Russian State Film and Photo Archive outside of Russia, supervising the cataloguing, database and software creation of this project. Dr. Beszterczey was the producer/director for over half of the Fodor's films, and served as international producer for Made in Russia (CTC, Russia) and Yanks for Stalin (History Channel, USA)

He is an international journalist and has produced over 200 documentaries and series programs for Hungarian and international television. As the Western European Correspondent for Hungarian TV Channel 1, Dr. Beszterczey has produced projects in Western Europe, the United States and the Middle East.

With over 15 years of experience in international production, a Ph.D. in Sociology and a second Ph.D. in Politics and International Relations, Dr. Beszterczey is a valuable asset for contacts on the world political and media scene.

William Cran
InVision
Series Producer
RED FILES
Writer, Producer, Director
RED FILES: SECRET VICTORIES OF THE KGB
William Cran's career in television started at the BBC in 1969, where he worked for eight years, three of them at PANORAMA, the Corporation's flagship current affairs program. In 1976, he moved to Canada where he became senior producer for THE FIFTH ESTATE, CBC's top-rated public affairs program. In 1979 he began a lasting association with WGBH-TV in Boston.

Cran is a documentary filmmaker whose independent production company, InVision, has produced more than 50 television programs since 1980. He has won more than two dozen awards, including four national Emmys, two duPont-Columbia awards, and a Peabody award.

InVison's recent productions for PBS include FRONTLINE's lauded "From Jesus to Christ: The First Christians" and "Ambush in Mogadishu" (which won the Edward R. Murrow Overseas Press Club Award), both telecast in 1998. Other FRONTLINE documentaries for PBS include "The Godfather of Cocaine" (1995), "Who Was Lee Harvey Oswald?" (1993), and the controversial and critically acclaimed "The Secret File on J. Edgar Hoover" (1993), which made headlines around the world. The eight-part series "The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money and Power," which aired on PBS in 1993, won numerous awards and garnered national media attention.

Mr. Cran is currently working on FRONTLINE "Apocalypse!" (working title), a two-hour special to be telecast on PBS on Tuesday, November 22 (check local listings).

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George Feifer
Writer
RED FILES Companion Book published by TV Books
George Feifer, a well-respected journalist and writer, has written the companion book for the RED FILES series.

Mr. Feifer graduated from Harvard College, and received a Russian Institute Certificate from Columbia University, with an exchange year at Moscow State University. After working as a news writer for CBS News and holding various roles on BBC radio and television, he has primarily concentrated on free-lance writing. His published books related to Russian topics include: Justice in Moscow, Message from Moscow, The Girl from Petrovka, Sozhenitsyn, and Moscow Farewell. His work Tennozan: The Battle of Okinawa and the Atomic Bomb, was selected as a New York Times "Notable of 1992". He has additionally published articles, essays, and book reviews in major American, British, and European magazines.

Phillip Knightley
Special correspondent for The Sunday Times for twenty years (1965-85) and one of the leaders of its Insight investigative team. He was twice named Journalist of the Year (1980 and 1988) in the British Press Awards--apart from John Pilger, the only journalist ever to have won it twice. He was also Granada Reporter of the Year (1980), Colour Magazine Writer of the Year (1982), holder of the Chef and Brewer Crime Writer's award (1983), and the Overseas Press Club of America award for the best book on foreign affairs in 1975 (The First Casualty)

His books include:
Philby, KGB Masterspy, Andre Deutsch and Knopf
The First Casualty (on war and propaganda), Andre Deutsch and Harcourt Brace and Jovanovich (Book of the Month Club main choice)
The Second Oldest Profession (on espionage), Andre Deutsch and W. W. Norton (Book of the Month Club Alternative choice)
An Affair of State (on the Profumo scandal), Cape
The Secret Lives of Lawrence of Arabia, Nelson
Lawrence of Arabia, Sidgwick & Jackson (children's book)
A Pearl of Days, Hamish Hamilton
Suffer the Children (on thalidomide), Andre Deutsch and Simon and Schuster
The Death of Venice (on attempts to save Venice), Deutsch and Praeger
The Rise and Fall of the House of Vestey, Little Brown

He has lectured on journalism, law, and war at the City University London, Manchester University, Queen Elizabeth College Oxford, Penn State, UCLA, the Inner Temple, the International Committee of the Red Cross, and at the RMA Sandhurst.

He presented the war reporting documentary to mark the 30th anniversary of "This Week"; a half-hour documentary on truth for schools' television; has reviewed the papers for BBC Breakfast TV and many "What the Papers Say". He has appeared in many documentaries in Britain, Canada and Australia.

He reviews non-fiction books for The Mail on Sunday, The Sunday Times, The Independent (London) and The Australian's Review of Books and The Age (Australia) He is a judge for Canada's Lionel Gelber Prize for the year's best book on international relations ($50,000)

He is a columnist for several leading Indian newspapers and magazines and knows the Indian literary and publishing scene.

Phillip Knightley was born in Australia but has spent most of his life in Britain. He was a special correspondent for The Sunday Times for twenty years and a leader of its team of investigative reporters, Insight. He was twice named British journalist of the year (1980 and 1988) and won the Overseas Press Club of America award in 1975 for the best book on foreign affairs, a history of war reporting and propaganda called "The First Casualty". He has lectured on journalism, law and war at various British and American universities and for the International Committee of the Red Cross and the Royal Military Acadamy, Sandhurst. He travels widely--mostly in India and the South Pacific. He is married with three grown-up children and relaxes by playing tennis most days.

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Paul Foss
Composer
RED FILES
Under the banner of his company 'Sound to Picture', Paul Foss has been composing successful, award-winning music scores since 1988. An experienced composer with an international reputation, Paul has written sound tracks for several international documentary series and for numerous single programs. In 1998, he created the full music score for the WGBH four-part series "From Jesus to Christ: The First Christians", and the BBC story of the Roman Empire's last, great conquest, "The Roman Way of War." Frontline/WGBH has recently released a soundtrack CD of the music included in "From Jesus to Christ."

Additionally, Mr. Foss composed the full musical score for the landmark PBS 8-part series on the oil industry, "The Prize - The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power". His score for the Learning Channel's "Flights of Courage" was nominated for an Emmy for Music Score. Other work includes creating music for CNN's daily programming covering the trial of O.J. Simpson in 1996, and numerous scores for other BBC, A&E, and PBS programs.

J. Mitchell Johnson
Abamedia
Series Producer
RED FILES
Drawing on more than two decades of filmmaking, RED FILES series producer, J. Mitchell Johnson - founder, president, and CEO of Abamedia - is an award-winning producer of documentary and current affairs programming for domestic and international television. Abamedia's reputation for unique access to Russian cultural, academic and governmental institutions stems, in part, from Mr. Johnson's pioneering efforts in US/Russian television programming, having produced the first U.S./Russian current affairs series, "Everybody's Talking," with ABC News for Ostankino/ORT Russia.

In 1996 Abamedia was invited by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to participate in a media partnership program in the former Soviet Union, which led to the creation of Abamedia's Archive Media Project (AMP): the official international trade representative of the Russian State Film and Photo Archive at Krasnogorsk. Krasnogorsk is the major repository of historic documentary images of Russia and the former Soviet Union - many of which have never been seen by Western or Russian eyes.

Among Mr. Johnson's documentary productions for PBS are THE VAN CLBURN INTERNATIONAL PIANO COMPETITION; LILI, a docudrama on the life of pianist Lili Kraus; six film shorts on SESAME STREET (Children's Television Workshop) and the award-winning documentary on Philip Johnson's celebrated design, WATERGARDEN.

His work also extend to new media. Abamedia's Russian Archives Online (RAO) and World Archive Online (WAO) is a UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) supported human heritage database project to be instantly accessible for self-customized levels of research via the Internet. A preview of RAO will be part of the RED FILES Web site at www.pbs.org.

Barbara Keys
Writer
RED FILES Web Site
Currently working toward her Ph.D. at Harvard University, Barbara Keys adds a wealth of historical knowledge to the RED FILES project. Her particular expertise lies in the following areas: Modern International History, Modern Russian History, Medieval Russian History and United States History since 1789.

She has served as a tutor for this History Department at Harvard University, teaching weekly seminars for junior honors candidates and sophomore history majors. She also led weekly discussion sections as a teaching fellow.

Barbara has been awarded numerous fellowships and awards: Jacob K. Javits Graduate Fellowship, U.S. Department of Education, 1989-94; Phi Beta Kappa, 1987; Sarah Bradley Gamble Fellowship, Harvard University, 1994-95; Honors in Independent Study for Senior Thesis, Carlton College, 1987; Noyers Prize, Carlton College, 1986; and Mortar Board Freshman Prize, Carlton College, 1984.

Her published works include the following: "Victor Kravchenko." Censorhip: An International Encyclopedia (Fitzroy Dearborn, forthcoming); "James Jesus Angleton." American National Biography, John A. Garraty, ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999); "Russian Serfdom." The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery, 2 vols., Junius P. Rodrigues, ed. (Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio, 1997); and "Developing Students' Ideas Through Paper Proposals" (Co-author with Erika Dreifus) Harvard Writing Project Bulletin, Fall 1996, p. 10.

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Stephan Lang
RED FILES Web site Writer
Mr. Lang is a freelance Russian interpreter and translator residing in Washington DC. He has an extensive background in Sovietology and ethnography, including graduate work at the prestigious Harriman Institute for Advanced Study of the Soviet Union at Columbia University's School of International and Public Affairs. He is fluent in Russian, and has travelled widely throughout the former Soviet Union in his work for the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and numerous US Government Departments, Agencies, and National Laboratories, and Fortune 500 corporations. A partial list of the persons he has interpreted for includes Vice President Al Gore, Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbaev, Federal Reserve Board Chairman Alan Greenspan, Henry Kissinger, and Zbigniew Brzezinski. He has been the translator of the academic journals "Soviet Statutes and Decisions" since 1989 and "Anthropology and Archaeology of Eurasia" since 1992.

Steven Leibman
Abamedia
Series Development and Story Editor
Web Site Development
RED FILES
Steven Leibman is Abamedia's senior vice president of creative affairs. Previously, Mr. Leibman was with Touchstone Pictures and Walt Disney Pictures, as vice president of Tom Schulman Productions (the Academy Award-winning screenwriter of Dead Poets Society); director of marketing and communications for the Los Angeles Theater Center and Connecticut's Hartford Ballet; and co-founder and president of the licensed genre film merchandiser, The Thinking Cap Company (e.g. Blade Runner, E.T., Raiders of the Lost Ark, The Empire Strikes Back)

Jonathan Sanders, Ph.D.
Writer/Editor
RED FILES Web site Investigative Resources
Calling upon his extensive background as a former CBS News Correspondent in Moscow, Jonathan Sanders brings years of research experience to this project. As a News Correspondent, he provided a history-based perspective and eyewitness reporting on all major political, economic, social and scientific developments across Eurasia. Most notably were his stories on the Chechen war for independence; Russian Presidential Elections; and breaking special news events, particularly the failed coups against Mikhail Gorbachev and Boris Yeltsin.

He spent 1977-78 as a Fulbright Scholar at Moscow State University and received a Ph.D. from Columbia's History Department in 1985. Professor Sanders is the author of Russia 1917: The Unpublished Revolution; V.V. Shul'gin: The Years; Comrade X Was Wrong: Soviet, TV Coverage of the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster; and with Heidi Hollinger, The Face of Modern Russia's Political Opposition (forthcoming, North America: summer 1999; Russia: Nov. 1999).

From its founding until summer 1988 he served as assistant director of the W. Averell Harriman Institute for Advanced Study of the Soviet Union. Sanders created the Working Group on Soviet Television at Columbia University and helped spread its technological innovations to many other university-based Soviet Studies programs. He also served as Assistant Director at Columbia University of the Russian Institute School of International and Public Affairs between 1980 and 1982, and as Princeton University's Ferris Professor of Journalism from 1998-1999.

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