D. Ballard received his undergraduate degree in Geology
and Chemistry from the University of California. He
attended graduate school at the University of Southern
California, the University of Hawaii's Graduate School
of Oceanography and received his Ph.D. in Marine Geology
and Geophysics from the University of Rhode Island.
During the Vietnam War, he served on active duty as
an Ensign, Lt. J.G. and finally as a Lieutenant. Ballard
has rejoined the U.S. Naval Reserve as a Commander.
Ballard has led or participated in more than 100 deep-sea
expeditions including the use of the deep-diving submersible
ALVIN and the Navy's nuclear research submarine NR-1.
Ballard is best known as the discoverer of the ocean
liner R.M.S. Titanic, and his expeditions include the
first discovery of high temperature black smokers.
retired from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
in 1997, where he was senior scientist and director
of the Center for Marine Exploration. Founder and head
of the Institute for Exploration (IFE) at Mystic Aquarium
in Mystic, Connecticut, Ballard today advocates the
use of technology such as advanced mapping and imaging
systems, underwater robotics and manned-submersibles
in deep-sea exploration.
links to this scientist's home page and other related information
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would like to know how you concluded this event would
have taken place 7,500 years ago and what other evidence
you found for you to determine without a doubt this
was Noah's Ark.
Our research has nothing to do with NoakÕs Arc.
It has a lot to do with whether there was a great flood
in this area that could have lead to the story of the
Great Flood. You should read Walter Pitman and William
RyanÕs Book "NoahÕs Flood" to understand how they arrived
at a date of 7,500 years ago. But in short, it was when
salt water mollusks replaced fresh water mollusks.
makes the Black Sea anoxic, or devoid of oxygen?
The deep saltwater in the Black Sea lacks vertical
circulation. As a result oxygen is not being replenished
and the bottom water has gone stagnant below 600 feet.
is to be gained by living at sea? What about waste and
pollution issues at sea? How will the sea condo work?
Will it bob up and down, making everyone inside seasick?
Is there a mechanism to counter this? What happens to
this complex in a major storm?
Living at sea gives people an opportunity to get
away from the ever increasing noise and crowding on
land which will only get worse with time. Waste and
pollution are stored within the floating structure and
removed on a regular basis for processing ashore. The
floating condo experiences little motion. This is a
proven technology that has been used by the oil companies
for their offshore platforms for many years now. It
is called the "spar buoy" technology. When a 30-foot
wave passes by the structure it will only rise 3 feet.
Farchette III asks:
there vents in the Atlantic, in particular on the leading
edge of the Caribbean Tectonic Plate? We have the Puerto
Rican Trench and Kick'em Jenny and there is 12,400'
water depth between St. Croix and St. Thomas US Virgin
Islands. I was fascinated by the ocean cycle you described
that takes 6-8 million years. Would it require a ridge
similar to the 33,000' PR Trench or is it through hydraulic
pressure through the ocean floor? That's two questions
forgive my indulgence. I am a native of St. Croix. Thank
Vents are found above undersea magma chambers that
are best found at the accreting or growing edge of an
oceanic plate. The Puerto Rican Trench is at the other
end of plate where it is being destroyed and vents have
not been found within such trenches. There are magma
chambers beneath the Cayman Trough but that is because
this is a small spreading center similar to the mid-ocean
ridge within the Trough. St. Croix and St Thomas are
situated along the sliding boundary of the Caribbean
Plate. You have earthquakes here but do not have magma
What are the main animals that you see around the
vents? Which is your favorite, most interesting animal?
You find many kinds of animals including clams,
mussels, fish, jellyfish, shrimp and a giant tube worm
which I like the best.
I am in the 7th grade at Holliston Middle School. I
studied Deep Sea Vents earlier this year. I would like
to know where you got the name Jason for your machine.
The name JASON came from Jason and the Argonauts who went
in search of the Golden Fleece. Since he was a great explorer,
I wanted our exploration vehicle to bear his name.
Hi. I am a student in Massachusetts. Earlier in the
year I studied Hydrothermal Vents in science class. When
you first saw the vents, did you have any idea of what
When we first saw them we were amazed, especially as they
were unexpected. It took us a few days to figure out what
we were seeing.