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JOHANNES KEPLER
JOHANNES KEPLER
Germany (1571 - 1630)
Johannes Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and key figure in the 17th century astronomical revolution. He is best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion, codified by later astronomers based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy.
 

Enjoy these insightful and educational video clips drawn from over 70 hours of interviews with the world's leading figures in astronomy, shot during the filming of 400 Years of the Telescope.

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Ed Krupp

Griffith Observatory and IYA2009
Ed Krupp - Griffith Observatory

Griffith Observatory has been open free to the public since 1935 out of Col. Griffith J. Griffithís desire to see that happen.

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Ed Krupp

Telescopes and the night skies
Ed Krupp - Griffith Observatory

Thereís no question in my mind that we lose something by losing the sky. That was that ability we had to look at the grandest scale of things and that direct experience that creates a nightly emotion in people is now absent from us.

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Ed Krupp

Our relationship with the sky
Ed Krupp - Griffith Observatory

Our ancient and prehistoric ancestors understood that there was a relationship between the rhythms of the sun and the moon and the stars, and what was taking place on earth that prompted them to pay close attention.

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Ed Krupp

Astronomy before telescopes
Ed Krupp - Griffith Observatory

When youíre talking about prehistoric and even ancient astronomy, you run into a problem right away, and that is evidence. This is the unwritten record for the most part and itís difficult to prove anything. You can only get an inkling of what might have been on peopleís minds with respect to the sky by hints that are left in ancient monuments, perhaps like New Grange in Ireland or maybe even Stonehenge in Southern England. Or on the other side of the world, say in a tomb that was built by the first emperor in ancient China.

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Ed Krupp

Modern scientific literacy and critical thought
Ed Krupp - Griffith Observatory

I am not so sure that we are less scientifically literate than we used to be. A lot of this has to do with image and communication as opposed to the real facts.

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Ed Krupp

Scientific conflict - past and present
Ed Krupp - Griffith Observatory

We tend to think of that conflict of Galileo very much in terms of the established forces in power at the time, primarily the authority of the church, and really it was the ideological thinking of the church and certain factions within the church as opposed to the whole institution.

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Ed Krupp

On the role of telescopes
Ed Krupp - Griffith Observatory

New instrumentation like the telescope does not necessarily evaporate old belief. In fact, sometimes it simply adds more detail to someoneís already baroque view of the environment around them.

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Rolf Kudritzki

The fundamental questions of astronomy
Rolf Kudritzki - Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii

At the end, what you really want to do as a human is you want to know where youíre coming from and where youíre going. What is the world you are living in? How did the world start and how is it developing?

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Rolf Kudritzki

How I became an astronomer (German)
Rolf Kudritzki - Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii

Transcript in progress.

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Rolf Kudritzki

How I became an astronomer (English)
Rolf Kudritzki - Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii

I was a physics student at Berlin University and that was a revolutionary time when students that studied in the mid-60s in Berlin and students had their own ideas of how the university and politically what things should be.

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Rolf Kudritzki

The Institute for Astronomy (IFA)
Rolf Kudritzki - Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii

The Institute for Astronomy here in Hawaii is one of the youngest astronomy institutions in the world. Certainly also in the United States. We are less than 40 years old. Our history is closely connected to the two observatories on top of the two big mountains in Hawaii: Haleakala in Maui and here in Mauna Kea, the place where we are just standing here.

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Rolf Kudritzki

The impact of new telescopes
Rolf Kudritzki - Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii

Every time in astronomy when a new telescope or a new telescope system came online and has been built, it has led to revolutionary detections of new things that nobody had thought about before.

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Rolf Kudritzki

IYA greeting (Deutsch)
Rolf Kudritzki - Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii

Transcript in progress.

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Rolf Kudritzki

IYA greeting
Rolf Kudritzki - Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii

As an astronomer with responsibility for the Mauna Kea observatories, Iím most happy to be out here and to greet everybody in the world.

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Rolf Kudritzki

On the justification of cost at Mauna Kea
Rolf Kudritzki - Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii

What you see around when you look around in dimensions that is a scientific investment on top of Mauna Kea of $1 billion and I think itís certainly not an exaggeration to say that the science done here in the last twenty years or so has revolutionized modern astronomy.

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Rolf Kudritzki

Mauna Kea and ground-based astronomy
Rolf Kudritzki - Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii

We are standing here on top of Mauna Kea, one of the major observatories in the world and you may ask the question why do we do astronomy from the ground. The answer is very simple, of course, it would be ideal to do astronomy from space but itís tremendously expensive.

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Rolf Kudritzki

Mauna Kea and the Polynesians
Rolf Kudritzki - Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii

For a German astronomer to come here to Hawaii to take on the directorís position at an institute here in Hawaii which has a responsibility to operate the observatory here it was quite an interesting challenge to learn about the many issues related to the Mauna Kea observatories.

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Rolf Kudritzki

Motivating young astronomers
Rolf Kudritzki - Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii

I think astronomy plays a very, very important role in educating a young generation and motivating a young generation just to be interested in science.

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Rolf Kudritzki

Astronomy moves to the mountain tops
Rolf Kudritzki - Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii

Originally, telescopes were at small research institutions normally connected to universities and they were in small cities where the universities were. For instance, at Munich University where I used to work before the observatory was built outside the city on a little hill where it was dark by that time. But all these cities have grown all the time the observatories connected to universities were in areas where people were living and you had a lot of light pollution.

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Rolf Kudritzki

Pan-STARRS
Rolf Kudritzki - Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii

Pan-STARRS is a new project that the University of Hawaii wants to do and we want to do it with one of the telescopes that you see in the background. Our old 88-inch telescopes. We want to use the site behind us and within the footprints of the existing building. We want to build a new telescope system which has a major goal to take a deep movie of the sky for ten years.

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Rolf Kudritzki

Why astronomy is important
Rolf Kudritzki - Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii

Astronomy has changed our thinking as humans as no other science. Without astronomy you would think you were the center of the world; everything is orbiting around you. Because of astronomy you know that we, in our tiny little planet, orbiting around this tiny little star which we call our Sun are just a side issue in the universe. We are entirely unimportant. Weíre just one out of 200 billion stars in our Milky Way. Weíre even a side issue in our Milky Way, just on the outskirts.

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Geoff Marcy

1980s thoughts on searching for planets
Geoff Marcy - University of California, Berkeley

If you put yourself back in the 1980s, youíll remember that at that time no planets were known around other stars. Everybody knew that it would be exciting to discover planets, but it was deemed impossible. Planets are too small, they donít shine by their own energy generation, they donít yank very strongly gravitationally on their host star, so it was understood that planets couldnít be detected.

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Geoff Marcy

Why I became an astronomer
Geoff Marcy - University of California, Berkeley

I first fell in love with astronomy as a 14-year-old when my parents bought me a little used telescope that barely worked. But I put it out on the roof of my house in the San Fernanado valley in Los Angeles and I looked up every night and saw something different. My favorite was Saturn. I still, to today, can hardly believe that you can see that jewel in the darkness of space, the ring around Saturn thatís so exquisite.

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Geoff Marcy

Discovering exosolar planets
Geoff Marcy - University of California, Berkeley

When the Swiss discovered the planet around 51-PEG, and we, a week later, confirmed it, some remarkable sociology of science took place.

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Geoff Marcy

The Copernican revolution and extraterrestrial life
Geoff Marcy - University of California, Berkeley

The day may come in our lifetimes when we finally discover the first signs of and intelligent civilization elsewhere in our Milky Way galaxy. And when that happens, its anyoneís guess how our society, how our worldwide community will respond.

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