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SIR ISAAC NEWTON
SIR ISAAC NEWTON
England (1643 - 1727)
English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist and theologian, his Philosophæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, is considered to be the most influential book in the history of science. In this work, Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, laying the groundwork for classical mechanics, which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries and is the basis for modern engineering.
 

Enjoy these insightful and educational video clips drawn from over 70 hours of interviews with the world's leading figures in astronomy, shot during the filming of 400 Years of the Telescope.

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Trudy Bell

Alvan Clark and Sons and the end of the large refractor
Trudy Bell - Writer

The most famous makers of refracting telescopes, that made them the world’s largest five times over, was the father and sons team Alvan Clark and Sons.

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Trudy Bell

Groundbreaking telescopes
Trudy Bell - Writer

The key telescopes that changed the technology of the telescope.

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Trudy Bell

IYA Greeting
Trudy Bell - Writer

My name is Trudy E. Bell. I’m a science journalist and the former editor of the journal of the antique telescope society.

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Trudy Bell

Lens vs. mirror telescopes
Trudy Bell - Writer

The lens telescope and the mirror telescope, developed in parallel, at the same time. And there were a lot of technical issues – technology issues, it wasn’t at all clear which was going to be better.

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Trudy Bell

Large speculum mirrors of the 19th century
Trudy Bell - Writer

The main problem that Herschel and also Lord Ross had with their mirrors is they had to be repolished so often, especially in the foggy, grimy atmosphere of industrializing England.

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Trudy Bell

Franhoffer and the refracting telescope
Trudy Bell - Writer

Franhoffer was very interested in optics from a very young age, apprenticed to a spectacle-maker, and then went on because he wanted to make the largest telescopes in the world, and the best telescopes in the world, and he did.

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Trudy Bell

Early single lens telescopes and the achromatic problem
Trudy Bell - Writer

The main problem with using a single lens as Hoegens and Galileo and the early people was that it acted like a prism, so you ended up getting fringes of color around any object that you were looking at at a distance, particularly bright objects like stars.

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Trudy Bell

Why I became interested in astronomy
Trudy Bell - Writer

I just became so fascinated with these megapieces of engineering, and all the people who had their hearts broken by them and had their reputations made by them, it’s so much a human story, as much as anything else, and they’re so beautiful, these instruments are just works of art.

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Trudy Bell

William Herschel's large reflector telescopes
Trudy Bell - Writer

in the late 18th century you had William Herschel in England with his 20-foot telescope, and 40-foot telescope with a Herschelian focus.

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Butler Burton

Electromagnetic spectrum
Butler Burton - NRAO, Green Bank

The electromagnetic spectrum includes the very short wavelengths, very high energetic waves. Gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet waves. Visible waves, the only ones we can see with our eyes. Infrared. Then the radio are the very long waves, stretching from a few millimeters out to many, many meters.

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