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SIR JOHN HERSCHEL
SIR JOHN HERSCHEL
Berkshire, England (1792 - 1871)
Sir John Frederick William Herschel was an English mathematician, astronomer, chemist, experimental photographer and inventor. The son of astronomer Sir William Herschel, he originated the use of the Julian day system in astronomy. He named seven moons of Saturn and four moons of Uranus.
 

Disfrute estos perspicaces y educacionales videoclips obtenidos de más de 70 horas de entrevistas con las más notables figuras en astronomía tomadas durante la filmación del documental 400 Años del Telescopio.

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Steven Beckwith

How I became an astronomer
Steven Beckwith - Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI

It’s a little bit of an accident. I loved astronomy as a kid. I had a telescope, and then I made a telescope, my father actually got me started and got me a kit...

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Steven Beckwith

Hubble and the general public
Steven Beckwith - Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI

Hubble, frankly, didn’t belong to the astronomers at that point. It was publicly funded, yes, we use it for research, yes, it is great, it is the greatest of these instruments, but really we had been so successful in engaging the public in this mission that everybody thought they owned it and they couldn’t understand why it was going to be taken away from them.

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Steven Beckwith

IYA Greeting
Steven Beckwith - Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI

Astronomy is part of the human consciousness or awareness that’s we’re in something bigger than just ourselves.

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Steven Beckwith

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)
Steven Beckwith - Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI

First of all, we know we can predict with very good – we believe we can predict certain discoveries that should be made which will be tremendously exciting, if we can build the technology. In the case of the James Webb, it’s designed to be able to look back beyond the beginning of galaxies.

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Steven Beckwith

The Hubble launch
Steven Beckwith - Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI

Imagine putting a rather heavy school bus in orbit, and then being able, once it’s in orbit, to point it anywhere in the sky to a tiny fraction of a second of arc, and stabilize it for an hour as it’s whizzing around, or more as it’s whizzing around the earth at 17,000 miles an hour. That was a remarkable technological feat.

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Steven Beckwith

Servicing the Hubble in the 1990s
Steven Beckwith - Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI

In some sense the money was a problem, because people like to do new things, Hubble is this old thing – yes, it’s old but nothing wrong with it – still the best thing in astronomy, still that way, and it’s going to get better.

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Steven Beckwith

The evolution of 20th century astronomical thought
Steven Beckwith - Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI

We thought, people thought, that galaxies as we see them, these fuzzy things, were probably always like that. As they emerged from the soup after the Big Bang, they were large extended things.

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Steven Beckwith

Hubble clarifies theory
Steven Beckwith - Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI

Hubble’s big impact in many areas is being able to demonstrate unequivocally that we understand what’s going on whereas prior to Hubble we only had an inkling. That I think by itself, the totality of that understanding, makes it one of the greatest instruments ever.

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Steven Beckwith

The birth of the space telescope
Steven Beckwith - Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI

Now the politics of the space telescope are a little more intricate than the politics of some other things, because in addition to convincing the government that you want to finance it, you really have to have the astronomical community – however that’s defined – broadly behind the program.

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Steven Beckwith

Repairing and enhancing the Hubble telescope
Steven Beckwith - Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI

NASA, to their credit, is a very can-do agency. NASA and the people associated with the Space Program are just extraordinary individuals, and so NASA decided pretty quickly that they had to do something, they had to rescue the Hubble.

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Steven Beckwith

Improving the Hubble telescope
Steven Beckwith - Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI

In the case of Hubble it was the same thing, they said ‘we will put a large telescope in space’ – they had some pretty good ideas about how to do it, but there were many details left to be worked out.

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Steven Beckwith

Hubble: The People's Telescope
Steven Beckwith - Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI

The more I looked at Hubble, the more I became convinced that this was a modern miracle, something we had to keep going, had to have up there. You see it time and again, in the way that the public reacts to the Hubble.

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Trudy Bell

Draper and the development of the reflecting telescope
Trudy Bell - Writer

In the 1860s, Henry Draper in the United States – on the Hudson River in New York State, discovered a way of making a mirror out of glass, and so you’d just have the concave surface of glass instead of speculum metal, and he discovered a way of depositing a thin coating of silver on it, and so it would take the curve of the figure.

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Trudy Bell

A brief history of mirror and lens
Trudy Bell - Writer

Basically, the development of the telescope can be thought of as a race between the mirror and the lens, and we didn’t know which one was going to win. Both had major technical problems, and both had major advantages. They were different.

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Trudy Bell

Dolland and the achromatic refractor
Trudy Bell - Writer

In the 18th century a man named John Dolland, and also his son Peter Dolland, together made what they called achromatic reflectors using that. Achromatic means – “A” means no and “chromatic” means color, so it’s a no color refractor – and that was a huge boost to the development of the refracting telescope.

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Trudy Bell

Alvan Clark and Sons and the end of the large refractor
Trudy Bell - Writer

The most famous makers of refracting telescopes, that made them the world’s largest five times over, was the father and sons team Alvan Clark and Sons.

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Trudy Bell

Groundbreaking telescopes
Trudy Bell - Writer

The key telescopes that changed the technology of the telescope.

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Trudy Bell

IYA Greeting
Trudy Bell - Writer

My name is Trudy E. Bell. I’m a science journalist and the former editor of the journal of the antique telescope society.

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Trudy Bell

Lens vs. mirror telescopes
Trudy Bell - Writer

The lens telescope and the mirror telescope, developed in parallel, at the same time. And there were a lot of technical issues – technology issues, it wasn’t at all clear which was going to be better.

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Trudy Bell

Large speculum mirrors of the 19th century
Trudy Bell - Writer

The main problem that Herschel and also Lord Ross had with their mirrors is they had to be repolished so often, especially in the foggy, grimy atmosphere of industrializing England.

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Trudy Bell

Franhoffer and the refracting telescope
Trudy Bell - Writer

Franhoffer was very interested in optics from a very young age, apprenticed to a spectacle-maker, and then went on because he wanted to make the largest telescopes in the world, and the best telescopes in the world, and he did.

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Trudy Bell

Early single lens telescopes and the achromatic problem
Trudy Bell - Writer

The main problem with using a single lens as Hoegens and Galileo and the early people was that it acted like a prism, so you ended up getting fringes of color around any object that you were looking at at a distance, particularly bright objects like stars.

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Trudy Bell

Why I became interested in astronomy
Trudy Bell - Writer

I just became so fascinated with these megapieces of engineering, and all the people who had their hearts broken by them and had their reputations made by them, it’s so much a human story, as much as anything else, and they’re so beautiful, these instruments are just works of art.

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Trudy Bell

William Herschel's large reflector telescopes
Trudy Bell - Writer

in the late 18th century you had William Herschel in England with his 20-foot telescope, and 40-foot telescope with a Herschelian focus.

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Butler Burton

Electromagnetic spectrum
Butler Burton - NRAO, Green Bank

The electromagnetic spectrum includes the very short wavelengths, very high energetic waves. Gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet waves. Visible waves, the only ones we can see with our eyes. Infrared. Then the radio are the very long waves, stretching from a few millimeters out to many, many meters.

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