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SIR ISAAC NEWTON
SIR ISAAC NEWTON
England (1643 - 1727)
English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist and theologian, his Philosophæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, is considered to be the most influential book in the history of science. In this work, Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, laying the groundwork for classical mechanics, which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries and is the basis for modern engineering.
 

Disfrute estos perspicaces y educacionales videoclips obtenidos de más de 70 horas de entrevistas con las más notables figuras en astronomía tomadas durante la filmación del documental 400 Años del Telescopio.

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Scott Fisher

Gemini North
Scott Fisher - Gemini North

There are two telescopes: the twin Gemini telescopes we like to call them. One is here in Mauna Kea where we’re standing right now and one is in central Chile, on western South America, on the coast of South America.

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Scott Fisher

The impact of the telescope
Scott Fisher - Gemini North

We’re all astronomers a little bit because we all look up and we see the moon and stars and the planets up in the sky. I think everybody feels a little bit of awe because of that stuff. Until the invention of the telescope our eyes were the windows into our universe so we were limited by the capability of our eyes.

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Scott Fisher

Infrared and adaptive optics
Scott Fisher - Gemini North

This is the beauty of working in the infrared is that what you see up there is not really what you get. Our eyes are attuned to visible light. We see all the colors of the rainbow. Well, there’s a lot of other colors that we can’t see with our eyes, but our cameras can see them. In the near infrared, that’s very similar to night vision goggles.

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Scott Fisher

Why is astronomy important?
Scott Fisher - Gemini North

I think a lot of people make the mistake of thinking the sky is static and it doesn’t change. It’s very dynamic up there and it gives you a perspective check. People who study astronomy as a hobby or as a profession, have a very unique perspective on our place in the universe.

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Scott Fisher

The laser guide star
Scott Fisher - Gemini North

The laser guide star is actually a laser that’s attached to our telescope and we propagate that laser from the top of the telescope about 70 miles straight up into the air.

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Scott Fisher

A transitional time in astronomy
Scott Fisher - Gemini North

This is a transitional time in astronomy as far as telescopes go. I think some folks would argue that it’s always a transitional time because we tend to plan and build bigger telescopes and telescopes with different capabilities. But right now what’s happening is the big telescopes now are like Gemini, Keck and Subaru, and VLT, these are 8 – 10 meter telescopes.

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Kathryn Flanagan

James Webb Space Telescope (JWST): The beginning of the universe
Kathryn Flanagan - James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

The first thing we wish to do is look at the first sources of light in the universe. The very earliest galaxies that formed, the very first clusters of stars that formed from the very first stars. In order to do that, we have to use infrared light as I’ve said.

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Kathryn Flanagan

James Webb Space Telescope (JWST): The origins of life in the cosmos
Kathryn Flanagan - James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

And finally we come to the fourth major science goal, which would be planetary systems and possibly the origins of life in the cosmos.

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Kathryn Flanagan

JWST: The assembly of galaxies and the birth of stars
Kathryn Flanagan - James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

Transcript in progress

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Kathryn Flanagan

Are we alone in the universe?
Kathryn Flanagan - James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

We are definitely looking for the signatures of life, in planets and the atmospheres of planets; there’s no question that is a major goal of much of what NASA astrophysics is doing.

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Kathryn Flanagan

Bruno Rossi: My astronomical hero
Kathryn Flanagan - James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

I have to say that many of us in astronomy were begotten by mentors.

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Kathryn Flanagan

Asking the fundamental questions in astronomy
Kathryn Flanagan - James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

I truthfully think that the questions that drive us to build a great observatory such as the James Webb Space Telescope, are the fundamental questions that you ask yourself when you sit on a hillside and look into the sky.

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Kathryn Flanagan

Galileo and the JWST
Kathryn Flanagan - James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

I’d like to think that we’d be smart enough to hire Galileo into the project and I’m almost positive that Galileo would be smart enough to join the team.

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Kathryn Flanagan

IYA greeting
Kathryn Flanagan - James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

I would like to say, to those of you who have great dreams, write them down because I think you will meet them. I think they will be greeting you in 10 or 20 years.

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Kathryn Flanagan

An introduction to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)
Kathryn Flanagan - James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

Transcript in progress

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Kathryn Flanagan

The great space observatories
Kathryn Flanagan - James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

The James Webb Space Telescope, or JWST, or Webb, is one of the series of great observatories. These are observatories designed to look deeply into the universe at different wave bands or wavelengths.

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Kathryn Flanagan

Why I became an astronomer
Kathryn Flanagan - James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

The real reason I’m an astronomer is that I haven’t figured out what I really, really want to narrow down my life to do, so I figure if I have a job that allows me to have the entire universe to play with, I really can’t complain, right?

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Kathryn Flanagan

Women in astronomy
Kathryn Flanagan - James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

We have had women astronomers for well over a hundred years, certainly contributing, but the big issue is they haven’t always gotten credit for their contributions, right? And truthfully it is a little bit easier to lead from the front than it is to lead from behind.

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Wendy Freedman

The 100-inch Hale telescope
Wendy Freedman - Carnegie Observatories

This is a telescope that revolutionized the world, literally. Completely changed our perception of the world that we live in.

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Wendy Freedman

The accelerated universe and dark energy
Wendy Freedman - Carnegie Observatories

We’re living in a particularly exciting time now in cosmology. Not only do we have a universe that is expanding, as Hubble had discovered, but the expansion appears to be speeding up – it’s accelerating.

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Wendy Freedman

Carolyn Herschel
Wendy Freedman - Carnegie Observatories

One of the first women astronomers was Carolyn Herschel, and she and her brother William Herschel in the 18th century, were the ones responsible for discovering the planet Uranus.

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Wendy Freedman

Edwin Hubble and the 100-inch telescope
Wendy Freedman - Carnegie Observatories

Edwin Hubble, here at the 100-inch telescope, took a series of photographic plates, large glass photographic plates, and he noticed that there were objects on the plates that were changing in their brightness – pinpoints of light not unlike other stars that he was photographing.

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Wendy Freedman

The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT)
Wendy Freedman - Carnegie Observatories

The Giant Magellan Telescope is an ambitious new project following in Hale’s footsteps; in a sense it’s the next generation of optical telescopes on the ground.

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Wendy Freedman

Harvard college women
Wendy Freedman - Carnegie Observatories

There were a number of women who were working at the Harvard College Observatory at the turn of the last century, and at that time in fact women were not allowed to get PhDs in astronomy.

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Wendy Freedman

Henrietta Swan Leavitt
Wendy Freedman - Carnegie Observatories

Leavitt was studying objects we now know to be other galaxies very nearby to ours, the small and the large Magellanic cloud. And she discovered that there were objects that were changing in their brightness. This is now known as the Leavitt Period Luminosity Relation.

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