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EDWIN HUBBLE
EDWIN HUBBLE
USA (1889 - 1953)
Edwin Powell Hubble profoundly changed astronomers' understanding of the nature of the universe by demonstrating the existence of other galaxies besides the Milky Way. He also discovered that the degree of redshift observed in light coming from a galaxy increased in proportion to the distance of that galaxy from the Milky Way. This became known as Hubble's law, and would help establish that the universe is expanding.
 

Disfrute estos perspicaces y educacionales videoclips obtenidos de más de 70 horas de entrevistas con las más notables figuras en astronomía tomadas durante la filmación del documental 400 Años del Telescopio.

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Wendy Freedman

IYA greeting
Wendy Freedman - Carnegie Observatories

I would like to encourage you in this year of 2009, celebrating 400 years of the telescope, to take a moment and get away from city lights, get beyond the cities where many of us have grown up and have never had a chance to look at a dark night sky.

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Wendy Freedman

Mountaintop observing
Wendy Freedman - Carnegie Observatories

To obtain the best astronomical observations, it’s desirable to get to high altitude, get away from city lights, find a dry site where the atmosphere is very stable, and the reason for that of course is the clarity of an image that you get is improved if the atmosphere is not in a lot of turbulent motion.

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Wendy Freedman

An opportunity to use the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)
Wendy Freedman - Carnegie Observatories

I think personally I was very lucky to come along at just the right time in astronomy.

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Wendy Freedman

Why I became an astronomer
Wendy Freedman - Carnegie Observatories

I was interested in astronomy from a very early age, I was interested in all science from a very early age, but I can probably date exactly when I became hooked, and that was – I was probably seven years old.

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Suvi Gezari

Galaxies and black holes evolve together
Suvi Gezari - John Hopkins University

What’s exciting about super massive black holes is not just that they are in the centers of galaxies, but they seem to be connected with the formation and evolution of stars in the galaxy that they are sitting in.

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Suvi Gezari

The Golden Age of astronomy
Suvi Gezari - John Hopkins University

In this Golden Age of astronomy, when you’re trying to investigate a problem, you don’t have to just go about it with one telescope or in one wavelength region of light. You can use a whole array of telescopes and really study the problem from many different angles.

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Suvi Gezari

Ground versus space-based telescopes
Suvi Gezari - John Hopkins University

The age of ground based telescopes is not over, even though we have wonderful satellite telescopes that detect x-ray radiation and ultraviolet radiation.

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Suvi Gezari

How I became an astronomer
Suvi Gezari - John Hopkins University

I really got involved in astronomy research in college doing summer research programs and that’s when I really decided that I wanted to do astronomy as a profession.

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Suvi Gezari

Light spectra
Suvi Gezari - John Hopkins University

Light comes in a spectrum of energies and wavelengths.

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Suvi Gezari

Alternative techniques of studying distant black holes
Suvi Gezari - John Hopkins University

So what about all the other super massive black holes that are sitting there? How can we figure out how big they are and how they’re affecting the rest of the galaxy if they’re not producing any radiation from swallowing gas?

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Suvi Gezari

Studying super massive black holes
Suvi Gezari - John Hopkins University

There are super massive black holes lurking in the centers of most galaxies, but we can only really see the signatures of these black holes in a handful of them.

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Suvi Gezari

The telescope and unexpected discoveries in astronomy
Suvi Gezari - John Hopkins University

The greatest discoveries that happen from telescopes are completely unexpected by the entire astronomy community who designed the telescope in the first place.

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Mark Giampapa

My astronomical hero
Mark Giampapa - National Solar Observatory

I’d have to say that my hero in astronomy – though he was not a career astronomer - but he was the writer, Isaac Asimov.

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Mark Giampapa

The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST)
Mark Giampapa - National Solar Observatory

Solar astronomers believe that many of the mysteries of the formation of magnetic structures on the sun are in these small magnetic elements. And, so we want to build an even larger solar telescope that we call the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope – or simply the ATST.

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Mark Giampapa

Solar astronomy
Mark Giampapa - National Solar Observatory

Solar astronomy, of course, concentrates on a single object, the sun. But then the sun is not entirely unique in the galaxy of stars, though it’s not exactly the most typical star in the galaxy.

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Mark Giampapa

General relativity and solar observations
Mark Giampapa - National Solar Observatory

Einstein’s general theory of relativity had an interesting prediction, namely that light rays passing near the sun, passing through the strong gravitational field of the sun would be bent, and this led to the prediction that the apparent positions of stars as their light passed near the sun would shift.

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Mark Giampapa

George Ellery Hale and sunspots
Mark Giampapa - National Solar Observatory

George Ellery Hale was the founder of Mt. Wilson Observatory in the early 1900s, where he was to carry out fundamental experiments in solar observational astrophysics.

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Mark Giampapa

IYA greeting
Mark Giampapa - National Solar Observatory

Hi, I’m Mark Giampapa, an astronomer, and I’d like to extend to you on behalf of the National Solar Observatory, our greetings and my own personal greetings and thank you for your participation in the International Year of Astronomy. And I want you to always remember to look up.

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Mark Giampapa

The McMath-Pierce telescope
Mark Giampapa - National Solar Observatory

Behind me is the McMath-Pierce telescope, the world’s largest solar telescope. It has a primary mirror of 1.6 meters in diameter, which is nearly twice the diameter of currently operating solar telescopes.

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Mark Giampapa

Studying the sun
Mark Giampapa - National Solar Observatory

Among all the astronomical objects that we observe, the sun is certainly the most important astronomical object to all of humankind. The sun supplies the energy for life on Earth, to sustain our lives on the Earth, and it’s the driver of the climate on Earth. And so it’s extremely important for us to understand all aspects of the variability of the sun.

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Mark Giampapa

Digital photography and computing power in astronomy
Mark Giampapa - National Solar Observatory

Transcript in progress

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Mark Giampapa

The telescope, Galileo and solar observations
Mark Giampapa - National Solar Observatory

Galileo was among four initial users of the telescope, and observed sunspots with his newly invented telescope. And that really marked the beginning of solar astronomy.

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Mark Giampapa

What is astronomy?
Mark Giampapa - National Solar Observatory

Well, astronomy is the study of the stars, planets, and basically the contents of the cosmos. Their composition, their evolution, and the large-scale structure of the universe.

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Mark Giampapa

Why I became an astronomer
Mark Giampapa - National Solar Observatory

I became an astronomer because I really enjoyed physics and mathematics as a kid, and especially in high school. I found though that I tended to like the physics problems in space more than the physics problems in the lab.

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Owen Gingerich

Copernicus and Aristarchus
Owen Gingerich - Harvard University

In Copernicus’ day, one didn’t want to be too radical an innovator.

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