Spanish & Chicano English
Curricular Unit Menu
The Hispanic population is now the largest and fastest growing
minority in the United States. With increased size has come increased
visibility and cultural influence—but also more widespread and more
entrenched stereotypes. This unit addresses the history and current
status of the Hispanic population and its languages in the U.S. Spanish
has a long history in the New World, where it has co-existed in dynamic
tension and sometimes conflict
Description/Episode DVD Section VT Time Code Running Time
*This section of the video may be inflammatory in some
situations. The search for illegal immigrants and some of the opinions
expressed are likely to be controversial. Teachers should preview it
before using it in class.
Total time of video segments: (18:16)
Rosa Can’t Speak English
(DYSA/1) 1.4 [01:18:45]
takes place in Spanish Harlem in New York. Robert MacNeil orders a shaved ice from a street vendor, Rosa, who has lived and worked in New York City for nineteen years and does not speak English.
South to the Border* (DYSA/2)
opens with MacNeil driving south through Texas toward the U.S.-Mexican border. He speaks with Allan Wall, a U.S. citizen who lives in Mexico. Wall is a language teacher who believes that English should be made the official language of the United States and that Spanish poses a serious threat to national unity and to English in the U.S. In a supermarket in Laredo, Texas, customers and clerks speak mainly Spanish. MacNeil next interviews Robert Garcia, editor of the Laredo newspaper, which is published daily in both English and Spanish. Garcia describes how people in the area switch between English and Spanish. MacNeil then travels to El Cenizo, Texas. Under a previous mayor, El Cenizo made Spanish the town’s official language. MacNeil asks Garcia and Wall their reactions to El Cenizo’s decision.
Spanglish and Chicano
offers a different view of the immigration of Spanish speakers into the U.S. MacNeil visits Patricia Lopez, who hosts a television show, Mex 2 the Max, that features Latino music videos. During her show, she alternates between English and Spanish, blending the two languages at times into what she refers to as "Spanglish." She discusses with MacNeil the impact that Spanish and Spanglish have on contemporary American culture. MacNeil next meets with Carmen Fought, a linguist who does research on Chicano English. MacNeil and Fought observe some Chicano English-speaking boys in a park, one of whom does not speak any Spanish at all. Fought explains that Spanish is not a threat to English. She describes the process by which the descendants of Spanish-speaking people lose the language of their parents and grandparents in favor of English.
Is Spanish New in the U.S.?
People may be surprised to learn that Spanish was spoken in parts of what is now the United States before English speakers came to North America, as is explained in the essay “The Present and Past of Spanish in the United States” by Phillip Carter. The Spanish began to explore North America in 1492, and their first permanent settlement was St. Augustine, Florida, founded in 1565. The Spanish also explored much of the American Southwest and West (including Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, and Oregon), beginning as early as 1540. In fact, Santa Fe, New Mexico, was established in 1605, two years before the first permanent English settlement at Jamestown, Virginia.
How Many Spanish Speakers are there in the U.S.?
Reports of the number of Spanish speakers in the U.S. vary depending on what is meant by Spanish speakers. Does the term include only people who are monolingual in Spanish or does it also include those who are bilingual or multilingual? Does it include those from Spain as well as those from Mexico or Central or South America? Does it include people who are not of Hispanic descent who have learned Spanish through their education or training? (The term Hispanic refers to people of Latin American or—less often in the United States—Spanish descent who speak Spanish, though not necessarily exclusively, and who retain aspects of non-Anglo culture.) The 2000 census reports that there are 28 million Americans with at least some Spanish proficiency. Of these, about 8 million are reported as speaking English “not at all” or “not well,” while 20 million speak English “well” or “very well.” Actually, the percentage of speakers who speak English “not at all” or “not well” may be over-reported. Census numbers are based on family reporting, typically by heads of households. But, as Carmen Fought explains in the video, children of Spanish-speaking parents may be more fluent in English than their parents. If the head of their household is not fully aware of their English proficiency, which is quite possible when the language of the home is Spanish, children may be counted as non-proficient. At the same time, the actual number of Spanish-speaking persons may be under-reported: Census methodologies may miss migrant workers, those without a permanent address and telephone number, and non-U.S. citizens living in the U.S. Nevertheless, it is clear that the Hispanic population is now the largest minority group in the U.S., and it is projected to continue to grow in numbers and percentage of the total population. For more information about the Hispanic population, visit the Pew Hispanic Center Web page.
What is the Status of Spanish in the U.S.?
Although the Hispanic population is expected to continue growing, Spanish is highly unlikely to ever rival English as the most common language used in the U.S. In her essay, “Watch Your Language,” Carmen Fought explains the process by which children move away from Spanish (or other immigrant languages) in favor of English. After a generation or two in the U.S., children and grandchildren of immigrants tend to favor English (and may not even speak their ancestral language at all). This was true of nineteenth- and early twentieth-century immigrant groups such as the Italians, Germans, and Chinese, and it seems to be true now with the Hispanic population as well.
Sometimes descendants of Spanish-speaking immigrants from Mexico or Central or South America speak a distinctive variety of English called Chicano English. Chicano English is a fully formed dialect of English, and one can speak Chicano English without knowing any Spanish at all. People are often unable to distinguish between Chicano English speakers who also speak Spanish and Chicano English speakers who do not. Try it for yourself here.
On the other hand, speakers who are fluent in both Spanish and English may codeswitch between the two languages within a single conversation. Occasionally they combine elements of Spanish and English in a single sentence or even a single word. This mixture of languages is sometimes called “Spanglish” Unlike Chicano English, Spanglish is not a dialect of either English or Spanish but rather an intertwining of the two languages. It is not, though, a haphazard mixture of the two, for speakers observe certain grammatical constraints (for instance, they are unlikely to switch languages between an auxiliary verb and a main verb). Spanglish is, rather, a style of bilingual communication that allows speakers to reinforce their bilingual and bicultural identity.
Different dialects of Spanish are spoken in the U.S. today. As Phillip Carter explains, this is explained partly by the fact that early settlers came from different areas of Spain. Other dialects are the result of more recent immigration from other parts of the Spanish-speaking world, including Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Mexico. Just like English, Spanish is not the same everywhere, even within one country.
What does Chicano English Sound Like?
In addition to incorporating some Spanish (often taboo) words, Chicano English has some distinctive pronunciation patterns. Some of them are shared with African American English (AAE) and other vernacular dialects. One of these is the use of a “d” sound instead of a “th” sound: these and them are often pronounced “dese”and “dem.” Another is the loss of a consonant at the end of a word if that consonant is part of a consonant blend (also called a consonant cluster). For example, the word missed (which sounds the same as mist) will likely be pronounced as “miss.” Thus, when Chicano English (or AAE) speakers say “I miss’ the bus,” it may sound like they are using the present tense of the verb. A third feature common to Chicano English and other vernacular dialects is so-called g-dropping at the end of –ing verb forms, as in fishin’ and goin’. But here Chicano English differs from other vernacular varieties: It substitutes an “ee” sound for the short “i” sound in these verbs. So going may sound like “goween." Finally, Chicano is characterized by what linguists call the “non-reduction of unstressed vowels.” In English, if a syllable is not stressed, its vowel is often “reduced”—that is, pronounced “uh.” For example, most English speakers pronounce the first syllables of because or together with an “uh”: “buh-cuz” and “tuh-gether.” But Chicano English speakers often use “ee” and “oo” sounds even in unstressed syllables: They are likely to say “bee-cuz” and “too-gether.”
Should the U.S. have an official language?
Most countries are multilingual and multicultural. But they deal with the question of whether to declare an official language in several ways. Some have one official language; others have more than one; and others, like the U.S. and Australia, have no official language.
The question of whether the U.S. ought to have an official language has long been discussed. One bit of folklore has it that German was defeated as the official language of the U.S. by a single vote in 1795. Though not true, the story does suggest that the question of an official language is rooted in fears about other languages taking over English. The closest thing to a formal position on English as an official language is the Nationality Act of 1940, which requires that in order to gain U.S. citizenship most immigrants must be able to speak and understand rudimentary English. (Exceptions are made in the act and subsequent amendments for children, people with disabilities, and people who have resided in the U.S. for a particular length of time.)
English is not the official language of the U.S., but there is a vocal group of people whose goal is to make it so. This “English Only” movement is opposed by numerous groups, including the National Council of Teachers of English, Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages,and the Linguistic Society of America. A brief history of the English Only movement, as well as some examples of attempts to enforce English Only policy, can be found here. Writer and lecturer James Crawford has written extensively on the background and policy of the English Only movement. Crawford and others have suggested that bilingualism is beneficial for the U.S. and that declaring English the official language might jeopardize the language resources that the country needs for various purposes such as diplomacy, art, travel, study, and defense.
Rosa Can’t Speak English (DYSA/1)
1. Spanish in NYC: Rosa, the street vendor in the video, has lived and worked in New York City for nineteen years without speaking English. Should the nation be concerned with the conditions that allow Rosa to live in the U.S without proficiency in English? Why or why not? Rosa embodies the immigrant stereotype that many proponents of the English-only movement use to support their arguments. Reflect on the development of the United States. Do people in Rosa’s situation pose a threat to America?
South to the Border (DYSA/2)
2. English-Only Movement: Allan Wall says, “I think [other languages are] a threat to the linguistic unity of our nation because the English language is our common civic language.” Why do you think people fear other languages encroaching on the position of English as the dominant language in the U.S.? Do you think Wall and people who share his fears would favor one variety of English? Research another area of the world that faces a similar language issue arising from the increase in a population that does not speak the mainstream language, such as the increase in Arabic-speaking peoples in European countries.
3. Supermarket and newspaper editor: Newspaper editor Robert Garcia says he is used to “switching back and forth” between Spanish and English, and the clerk in the supermarket switches between Spanish and English during the course of her public announcement. How is switching between languages similar to and different from switching between formal and informal varieties of a language?
Spanglish and Chicano (DYSA/3)
4. Patricia Lopez: During her show, Patricia Lopez alternates between English and Spanish, blending the two languages at times into what she refers to as Spanglish. Lopez, a U.S.-born child of Spanish-speaking immigrant parents, is clearly proud of her ability to integrate two languages in her life. In what way does Spanglish reflect an evolving cultural identity? Can you draw any parallels to other new cultural identities that are reflected in dialect variation? (Read Gonzalez’s "Viva Spanglish" in preparation for this discussion question.)
5a. Chicano boys: Carmen Fought says that it is common for speakers of Chicano English not to know how to speak Spanish. She also says that the Spanish words these speakers know are often taboo terms. In what ways is this similar to or different from the development of slang in other dialects of English?
5b. Fought’s research counters common stereotypes that speakers of Chicano English do not know English well. What do such popular perceptions of Chicano English suggest about social attitudes? Why do you think these misconceptions persist?
6. Spanish in America: Fought notes that often the second generation born in America does not retain the home language (in this case, Spanish). She asserts that “It’s Spanish that is in danger.” With supplemental information provided by Phillip Carter’s article “The Past and Present of Spanish in the U.S,” reflect on the history of Spanish in the United States. What aspects of the nation’s cultural identity and history will be lost if Spanish becomes extinct in the U.S.?
1. Journal, portfolio, or writing assignment: Any of the discussion questions above could be used as a journal writing prompt, a portfolio writing topic, or another general writing assignment.
2. Read (and respond) assignment: Read one of the following essays, present an overview to the class, and lead class discussion on it: Carter, "The Past and Present of Spanish in the United States" ; C. Fought, "Talking with Mi Gente" ; Crawford, "A Nation Divided by One Language"; Baron, "The English Only- Movement through the 1990s."
3. Interactive Audio Exercise: Is this person bilingual? Play the audio clips and try to guess whether the person you hear speaking is bilingual (a speaker of both Spanish and Chicano English) or monolingual (a speaker only of Chicano English).What sorts of clues did you use to make your decision? What features of the voice misled you? What assumptions did you make about the speakers when listening to and categorizing the voices?
4. Literature-based exercise: Recently, a number of Chicano and Latino authors have included English-Spanish code switching and/or Chicano English in their novels, illustrating through their characters’ speech the changing role of Chicano English and Spanish-speaking populations in contemporary U.S. society. Read and respond to one of these books, analyzing the code-switching to figure out what triggers a shift from one language to another or which topics are likely to be discussed in Spanish and which in English. Some suggestions are:
The House on Mango Street or Caramelo by Sandra Cisneros
Living Up the Street or A Summer Life by Gary Soto
Down These Mean Streets by Piri Thomas
La Vida Loca by Luis J. Rodriguez
The Road to Tamazunchale by Ron Arias
Pocho by Jose Antonio Villarreal
The Rain God by Arturo Islas
Canícula by Norma Elia Cantú
The moths and other stories by Helena María Viramontes
Face of an Angel by Denise Chávez
Klail City by Rolando Hinojosa
So Far From God or The Mixquiahuala Letters by Ana Castillo
Riding Low on the Streets of Gold or Call Me Maria by Judith Ortiz Cofer
Almost a Woman by Esmeralda Santiago
House on the Lagoon by Rosario Ferré
Before We Were Free or How the García Girls Lost Their Accents by Julia Alvarez
5. Research-based exercise: Consult Carmen Fought’s book Chicano English in Context. Select a feature of Chicano English discussed there, preferably one not mentioned in this unit. Write down some examples and write a short description of the feature in your own words. If possible, come up with extra examples of your own.
6. Research-based exercise: Research words that have been incorporated into English during the past 400 years (since the settlement of the New World). Many dictionaries contain relevant information, as do some histories of English such as A biography of English by C. M. Millward. From which languages have words entered American English? Are there any groupings of words from specific languages (e.g., animal names, plants, words for cooking, etc.)? Are there historical periods where one language was more influential than others in contributing words to English? What is the effect on English of these borrowings?
7. Research-based exercise: Research the official language situation in another country and report on the following:
a. What is the official language?
b. Are there other languages in the country that do not have official status?
c. What percentage of the population speaks the official language as a native (first) language?
d. How was one language established as the official one?
e. Are the languages other than the official one considered prestigious or are they stigmatized?
f. How does the government accommodate the country’s multilingualism?
g. What roles do various languages serve in the society?
Some countries with particularly interesting language situations are South Africa, Ghana, Mexico, India, and China. You may also wish to study the country of your own heritage.
8. Research-based exercise: Explore the Pew Hispanic Center Web site. Choose an issue that affects the Hispanic population in America and that has a language-related component. On the home page there is a link to REPORTS which will lead you to a page filled with statistical data. The home page also has a link labeled LINKS that will take you to a number of websites that focus on the Hispanic population. Some helpful Hispanic links include GCIR (Grant-makers Concerned with Immigrants and Refugees) and Migration Information Source. Propose an interesting question and answer it in a written report or a Power Point presentation.
8a. English-only Movement: Read Baron’s article The English Only movement though the 1990s. Engage in a formal debate about the English Only movement.
8b. In Baron’s article, he refers to a 1995 custody case in Texas in which a judge accused Martha Laureano of child abuse for speaking Spanish to her five-year-old daughter. Write in your journal about your reactions to such a ruling. If you had been Ms. Laureano’s lawyer, what arguments would you have made on her behalf?
DVD Episode & Chapters: For DVD users, DYSA has been broken down into episodes and chapters. (The term chapter is industry standard for sections or "breaks" programmed into the DVD video. A number indicating the DYSA episode will always be followed by a number indicating the DVD chapter within an episode. (i.e. 1.2 is Episode 1, Chapter 2. The numbers 1.2 appear on-screen for DVD users.) DVD users may watch a DYSA episode straight through or alternatively, jump to specific sections of the program by referring to a main menu available on the DVD.
Chapter (or section) descriptions are available on-screen for DVD users only, and include a text description along side the episode number and the chapter number within the episode (i.e. 1.2 Pronunciation in Maine). Videotape users will need to refer to printed versions of the curricular units to benefit from the chapter descriptions.
Running Time The running time indicates the length of the section of video.
Videotape (VT) Time Code Videotape users should fast forward or rewind to the corresponding number displayed in the videotape counter window in the front of the videotape playback device. (i.e. Videotape users should insert the videotape in the player and shuttle to [01:27:19] in the counter window to see the beginning of the Springville,Texas section.)
The Do You Speak American? curriculum was made possible, in part, by a grant from Carnegie Corporation of New York. The statements made and views expressed are solely the responsibility of the authors.
William and Flora Hewlett
© COPYRIGHT 2005 MACNEIL/LEHRER PRODUCTIONS. All Rights Reserved.