Visit Your Local PBS Station PBS Home PBS Home Programs A-Z TV Schedules Watch Video Donate Shop PBS Search PBS
what speech do we like best?

Verbs are subdivided into two groups, regular verbs and irregular verbs, on the basis of how their past tense and past participles are formed. Most verbs are regular verbs. Regular verbs are those whose past tense and past participles are formed by adding a -d or an -ed to the end of the verb, for example, roll and rolled. Sometimes the last consonant must be doubled before adding the -ed ending, as in, plan and planned. So far, so good.

However, English being the contrary language that it is, there are also nearly 300 irregular verbs and there is no formula to predict how such a verb will form its past tense and past participle states. Some do not change at all, others change completely, while others change letters in the middle. It's no wonder the student of English sometimes gets confused. To make things a little easier, here is a table of all the irregular verbs.

Base Form Past Simple Past Participle 3rd Person Singular Present Participle/ Gerund
Abide Abode/ Abided Abode/ Abided/ Abidden Abides Abiding
Arise Arose Arisen Arises Arising
Awake Awoke Awoken Awakes Awaking
Be Was/ Were Been Am/ Is/ Are Being
Bear Bore Born/ Borne Bears Bearing
Beat Beat Beaten Beats Beating
Become Became Become Becomes Becoming
Befall Befalling Befallen Befalls Befalling
Beget Begot/ Begat Begotten Begets Begetting
Begin Began Begun Begins Beginning
Behold Beheld Beheld Beholds Beholding
Bend Bent Bent Bends Bending
Bereave Bereft Bereft/ Bereaved - Bereaving
Beseech Besought Besought Beseeches Beseeching
Beset Beset Beset Besets Besetting
Bespeak Bespoke Bespoken Bespeaks Bespeaking
Bestride Bestrode Bestridden Bestrides Bestriding
Bet Bet Bet Bets Betting
Betake Betook Betaken Betakes Betaking
Bethink Bethought Bethought Bethinks Bethinking
Bid Bid Bid Bids Bidding
Bide Bode/ Bided Bided Bides Biding
Bind Bound Bound Binds Binding
Bite Bit Bitten Bites Biting
Bleed Bled Bled Bleeds Bleeding
Blow Blew Blown Blows Blowing
Break Broke Broken Breaks Breaking
Breed Bred Bred Breeds Breeding
Bring Brought Brought Brings Bringing
Broadcast Broadcast/ Broadcasted Broadcast/ Broadcasted Broadcasts Broadcasting
Browbeat Browbeat Browbeat/ Browbeaten Browbeats Browbeating
Build Built Built Builds Building
Burn Burnt/ Burned Burnt/ Burned Burns Burning
Burst Burst Burst Bursts Bursting
Bust Bust Bust Busts Busting
Buy Bought Bought Buys Buying
Cast Cast Cast Casts Casting
Catch Caught Caught Catches Catching
Chide Chid Chidden/ Chid Chides Chiding
Choose Chose Chosen Chooses Choosing
Cleave Clove/ Cleft Cloven/ Cleft Cleaves Cleaving
Cling Clung Clung Clings Clinging
Clothe Clad/ Clothed Clad/ Clothed Clothes Clothing
Come Came Come Comes Coming
Cost Cost Cost Costs Costing
Creep Crept Crept Creeps Creeping
Cut Cut Cut Cuts Cutting
Dare Dared/ Durst Dared Dares Daring
Deal Dealt Dealt Deals Dealing
Dig Dug Dug Digs Digging
Dive Dived/ Dove Dived Dives Diving
Do Did Done Does Doing
Draw Drew Drawn Draws Drawing
Dream Dreamt/ Dreamed Dreamt/ Dreamed Dreams Dreaming
Drink Drank Drunk Drinks Drinking
Drive Drove Driven Drives Drives
Dwell Dwelt/ Dwelled Dwelt/ Dwelled Dwells Dwelling
Eat Ate Eaten Eats Eating
Fall Fell Fallen Falls Falling
Feed Fed Fed Feeds Feeding
Feel Felt Felt Feels Feeling
Fight Fought Fought Fights Fighting
Find Found Found Finds Finding
Fit Fit/ Fitted Fit/ Fitted Fits Fitting
Flee Fled Fled Flees Fleeing
Fling Flung Flung Flings Flinging
Floodlight Floodlit Floodlit Floodlights Floodlighting
Fly Flew Flown Flies Flying
Forbear Forebore Forborne Forbears Forbearing
Forbid Forbade/ Forbad Forbidden Forbids Forbidding
Forecast Forecast/ Forecasted Forecast/ Forecasted Forecast Forecasting
Forego Forewent Foregone Foregoes Foregoing
Foreknow Foreknew Foreknown Foreknows Foreknowing
Forerun Foreran Forerun Foreruns Forerunning
Foresee Foresaw Foreseen Foresees Foreseeing
Foretell Foretold Foretold Foretells Foretelling
Forget Forgot Forgotten Forgets Forgetting
Forgive Forgave Forgiven Forgives Forgiving
Forsake Forsook Forsaken Forsakes Forsaking
Forswear Forswore Forsworn Forswears Forswearing
Freeze Froze Frozen Freezes Freezing
Gainsay Gainsaid Gainsaid Gainsays Gainsaying
Get Got Got Gets Getting
Gild Gilded/ Gilt Gilded/ Gilt Gilds Gilding
Gird Girded/ Girt Girded/ Girt Girds Girding
Give Gave Given Gives Giving
Go Went Gone/ Been Goes Going
Grave Graved Graven Graves Graving
Grind Ground Ground Grinds Grinding
Grow Grew Grown Grows Growing
Hamstring Hamstrung/ Hamstringed Hamstrung/ Hamstringed Hamstrings Hamstringing
Hang Hung/ Hanged Hung/ Hanged Hangs Hanging
Have Had Had Has Having
Hear Heard Heard Hears Hearing
Heave Heaved/ Hove Heaved/ Hove Heaves Heaving
Hew Hewed Hewn Hews Hewing
Hide Hid Hidden Hides Hiding
Hit Hit Hit Hits Hitting
Hold Held Held Holds Holding
Housebreak Housebroke Housebroken Housebreaks Housebreaking
Hurt Hurt Hurt Hurts Hurting
Inbreed Inbred Inbred Inbreeds Inbreeding
Inlay Inlaid Inlaid Inlays Inlaying
Input Input/ Inputted Input/ Inputted Inputs Inputting
Inset Inset Inset Insets Insetting
Interbreed Interbred Interbred Interbreeds Interbreeding
Interlay Interlaid Interlaid Interlays Interlaying
Interweave Interwove Interwoven Interweaves Interweaving
Keep Kept Kept Keeps Keeping
Kneel Kneeled/ Knelt Kneeled/ Knelt Kneels Kneeling
Knit Knitted/ Knit Knitted/ Knit Knits Knitting
Know Knew Known Knows Knowing
Lade Laded Laden/ Laded Lades Lading
Lay Laid Laid Lays Laying
Lead Led Led Leads Leading
Lean Leaned/ Leant Leaned/ Leant Leans Leaning
Leap Leaped/ Leapt Leaped/ Leapt Leaps Leaping
Learn Learnt/ Learned Learnt/ Learned Learns Learning
Leave Left Left Leaves Leaving
Lend Lent Lent Lends Lending
Let Let Let Lets Letting
Lie Lay Lain Lies Lying
Light Lit Lit Lights Lighting
Lose Lost Lost Loses Losing
Make Made Made Makes Making
Mean Meant Meant Means Meaning
Meet Met Met Meets Meeting
Melt Melted Melted/ Molten Melts Melting
Miscast Miscast Miscast Miscasts Miscasting
Misdeal Misdealt Misdealt Misdeals Misdealing
Misgive Misgave Misgiven Misgives Misgiving
Mishear Misheard Misheard Mishears Mishearing
Mislay Mislaid Mislaid Mislays Mislaying
Mislead Misled Misled Misleads Misleading
Misread Misread Misread Misreads Misreading
Misspell Misspelt Misspelt Misspells Misspelling
Misspend Misspent Misspent Misspends Misspending
Mistake Mistook Mistaken Mistakes Mistaking
Misunderstand Misunderstood Misunderstood Misunderstands Misunderstanding
Mow Mowed Mown Mows Mowing
Outbid Outbid Outbid Outbids Outbidding
Outdo Outdid Outdone Outdoes Outdoing
Outgrow Outgrew Outgrown Outgrows Outgrowing
Outride Outrode Outridden Outrides Outriding
Outrun Outran Outrun Outruns Outrunning
Outsell Outsold Outsold Outsells Outselling
Outshine Outshone Outshone Outshines Outshining
Overbear Overbore Oberborne Overbears Overbearing
Overcome Overcame Overcome Overcomes Overcoming
Overdo Overdid Overdone Overdoes Overdoing
Overeat Overate Overeaten Overeats Overeating
Overhang Overhung Overhung Overhangs Overhanging
Overhear Overheard Overheard Overhears Overhearing
Overlay Overlaid Overlaid Overlays Overlaying
Overleap Overleapt/ Overleaped Overleapt/ Overleaped Overleaps Overleaping
Overpay Overpaid Overpaid Overpays Overpaying
Override Overrode Overridden Overrides Overriding
Overrun Overran Overridden Overruns Overrunning
Oversee Oversaw Overseen Oversees Overseeing
Oversell Oversold Oversold Oversells Overselling
Overshoot Overshot Overshot Overshoots Overshooting
Oversleep Overslept Overslept Oversleeps Oversleeping
Overtake Overtook Overtaken Overtakes Overtaking
Overthrow Overthrew Overthrown Overthrows Overthrowing
Partake Partook Partaken Partakes Partaking
Pay Paid Paid Pays Paying
Plead Pleaded/ Pled Pleaded/ Pled Pleads Pleading
Preset Preset Preset Presets Presetting
Proofread Proofread Proofread Proofreads Proofreading
Prove Proved Proved/ Proven Proves Proving
Put Put Put Puts Putting
Quit Quit Quit Quits Quitting
Read Read Read Reads Reading
Rebind Rebound Rebound Rebinds Rebinding
Rebuild Rebuilt Rebuilt Rebuilds Rebuilding
Recast Recast Recast Recasts Recasting
Redo Redid Redone Redoes Redoing
Relay Relaid Relaid Relays Relaying
Remake Remade Remade Remakes Remaking
Rend Rent Rent Rents Renting
Repay Repaid Repaid Repays Repaying
Rerun Reran Rerun Reruns Rerunning
Resell Resold Resold Resells Reselling
Reset Reset Reset Resets Resetting
Retell Retold Retold Retells Retelling
Rethink Rethought Rethought Rethinks Rethinking
Rewind Rewound Rewound Rewinds Rewinding
Rewrite Rewrote Rewritten Rewrites Rewriting
Rid Rid/ Ridded Rid/ Ridded Rids Ridding
Ride Rode Ridden Rides Riding
Ring Rang Rung Rings Ringing
Rise Rose Risen Rises Rising
Rive Rived Riven/ Rived Rives Riving
Run Ran Run Runs Running
Saw Sawed Sawed/ Sawn Saws Sawing
Say Said Said Says Saying
See Saw Seen Sees Seeing
Seek Sought Sought Seeks Seeking
Sell Sold Sold Sells Selling
Send Sent Sent Sends Sending
Set Set Set Sets Setting
Sew Sewed Sewed/ Sewn Sews Sewing
Shake Shook Shaken Shakes Shaking
Shave Shaved Shaved/ Shaven Shaves Shaving
Shear Sheared/ Shore Sheared/ Shore Shears Shearing
Shed Shed Shed Sheds Shedding
Shine Shone Shone Shines Shining
Shit Shit/ Shat Shit/ Shat Shits Shitting
Shoe Shod Shod Shoes Shoeing
Shoot Shot Shot Shoots Shooting
Show Showed Shown Shows Showing
Shrink Shrank Shrunk Shrinks Shrinking
Shrive Shrove Shriven Shrives Shriving
Shut Shut Shut Shuts Shutting
Sing Sang Sung Sings Singing
Sink Sank Sunk Sinks Sinking
Sit Sat Sat Sits Sitting
Slay Slew Slain Slays Slaying
Sleep Slept Slept Sleeps Sleeping
Slide Slid Slid/ Slidden Slides Sliding
Sling Slung Slung Slings Slinging
Slink Slunk Slunk Slinks Slinking
Slit Slit Slit Slits Slitting
Smell Smelt/ Smelled Smelt/ Smelled Smells Smelling
Smite Smote Smitten Smites Smiting
Sow Sowed Sown Sows Sowing
Speak Spoke Spoken Speaks Speaking
Speed Sped Sped Speeds Speeding
Spell Spelt Spelt Spells Spelling
Spend Spent Spent Spends Spending
Spill Spilt Spilt Spills Spilling
Spin Spun/ Span Spun Spins Spinning
Spit Spat Spat Spits Spitting
Split Split Split Splits Splitting
Spoil Spoiled/ Spoilt Spoiled/ Spoilt Spoils Spoiling
Spoonfeed Spoonfed Spoonfed Spoonfeeds Spoonfeeding
Spread Spread Spread Spreads Spreading
Spring Sprang Sprung Springs Springing
Stand Stood Stood Stands Standing
Stave Stove/ Staved Stove/ Staved Staves Staving
Steal Stole Stolen Steals Stealing
Stick Stuck Stuck Sticks Sticking
Sting Stung Stung Stings Stinging
Stink Stank Stunk Stinks Stinking
Strew Strewed Strewed/ Strewn Strews Strewing
Stride Strode/ Strided Stridden Strides Striding
Strike Struck Struck/ Stricken Strikes Striking
String Strung Strung Strings Stringing
Strive Strove Striven Strives Striving
Sunburn Sunburned/ Sunburnt Sunburned/ Sunburnt Sunburns Sunburning
Swear Swore Sworn Swears Swearing
Sweep Swept/ Sweeped Swept/ Sweeped Sweeps Sweeping
Swell Swelled Swollen Swells Swelling
Swim Swam Swum Swims Swimming
Swing Swung Swung Swings Swinging
Take Took Taken Takes Taking
Teach Taught Taught Teaches Teaching
Tear Tore Torn Tears Tearing
Tell Told Told Tells Telling
Think Thought Thought Thinks Thinking
Thrive Thrived/ Throve Thrived/ Thriven Thrives Thriving
Throw Threw Thrown Throws Throwing
Thrust Thrust Thrust Thrusts Thrusting
Tread Trod Trodden Treads Treading
Unbend Unbent Unbent Unbends Unbending
Unbind Unbound Unbound Unbinds Unbinding
Underbid Underbid Underbid/ Underbidden Underbids Underbidding
Undergo Underwent Undergone Undergoes Undergoing
Underlie Underlay Underlain Underlays Underlying
Understand Understood Understood Understands Understanding
Undertake Undertook Undertaken Undertakes Undertaking
Underwrite Underwrote Underwritten Underwrites Underwriting
Undo Undid Undone Undoes Undoing
Unwind Unwound Unwound Unwinds Unwinding
Uphold Upheld Upheld Upholds Upholding
Upset Upset Upset Upsets Upsetting
Wake Woke Woken Wakes Waking
Waylay Waylaid Waylaid Waylays Waylaying
Wear Wore Worn Wears Wearing
Weave Wove Woven Weaves Weaving
Wed Wedded/ Wed Wedded/ Wed Weds Wedding
Weep Wept Wept Weeps Weeping
Wet Wetted/ Wet Wetted/ Wet Wets Wetting
Win Won Won Wins Winning
Wind Wound Wound Winds Winding
Withdraw Withdrew Withdrawn Withdraws Withdrawing
Withhold Withheld Withheld Withholds Withholding
Withstand Withstood Withstood Withstands Withstanding
Wreak Wrought Wrought Wreaks Wreaking
Wring Wrung Wrung Wrings Wringing
Write Wrote Written Writes Writing

Source: tinyonline

Back to Top

Sponsored by:

National Endowment for the Humanities Hewlett Foundation Ford Foundation   Arthur Vining Davis Foundations Carnegie Corporation

National Endowment
for the Humanities

William and Flora Hewlett
Foundation

Ford
Foundation

Rosalind P.
Walter

Arthur Vining
Davis Foundations

Carnegie
Corporation of New York