Spillover: Zika, Ebola & Beyond

Dennis Carroll

Dennis Carroll

U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) Global Health Security and Development Unit
Washington, DC

Dr. Dennis Carroll currently serves as the Director of the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) Global Health Security and Development Unit. In this position, Carroll is responsible for providing strategic and operational leadership for the Agency's programs addressing new and emerging disease threats. Carroll also serves as USAID's Special Representative for Global Health Security.

Carroll was initially detailed to USAID from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a senior public health advisor in 1991. In 1995 he was named the Agency's Senior Infectious Diseases advisor, responsible for overseeing the Agency's programs in malaria, tuberculosis, antimicrobial resistance, disease surveillance, as well as neglected and emerging infectious diseases. In this capacity he was directly involved in the development and introduction of a range of new technologies for disease prevention and control. He was also responsible for the initial design and development of the President's Malaria Initiative. Carroll officially left CDC and joined USAID in 2005 when he assumed responsibility for leading the USAID response to the spread of avian influenza.

Jon Epstein

Jonathan Epstein

EcoHealth Alliance
New York, NY

A veterinarian and epidemiologist, Dr. Jonathan Epstein, Associate Vice President of Conservation Medicine at EcoHealth Alliance, studies Nipah and Ebola virus, along with SARS, and other diseases that have emerged within Asia and Africa. Epstein is part of a large international collaboration that is investigating the ecology of Nipah virus in Bangladesh, where outbreaks occur in people almost every year with mortality rates exceeding 70%. The focus of this research is to better understand the factors that cause this lethal virus to emerge, and to develop models to predict and prevent future outbreaks.

Epstein, along with colleagues at EcoHealth Alliance, is working with a consortia of university and NGO partners under USAID's "Emerging Pandemic Threats" program, designed to establish an early warning system for zoonotic disease emergence. The program studies the diversity of pathogens in wildlife and assesses the risk of spillover into livestock and human populations in the most vulnerable countries around the world.

Anthony Fauci

Anthony Fauci

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Bethesda, MD

Dr. Anthony Fauci was appointed Director of National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) in 1984. He oversees an extensive research portfolio of basic and applied research to prevent, diagnose, and treat infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections, influenza, tuberculosis, malaria and illness from potential agents of bioterrorism. Fauci serves as one of the key advisors to the White House and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services on global AIDS issues, and on initiatives to bolster medical and public health preparedness against emerging infectious disease threats such as pandemic influenza. He was one of the principal architects of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), which has already been responsible for saving millions of lives throughout the developing world. Fauci is also the long-time chief of the Laboratory of Immunoregulation. He has made many contributions to basic and clinical research on the pathogenesis and treatment of immune-mediated and infectious diseases.

Fauci has made seminal contributions to the understanding of how HIV destroys the body's defenses leading to its susceptibility to deadly infections. Further, he has been instrumental in developing highly effective strategies for the therapy of patients living with HIV/AIDS, as well as for a vaccine to prevent HIV infection. He continues to devote much of his research time to identifying the nature of the immunopathogenic mechanisms of HIV infection and the scope of the body's immune responses to HIV.

Tom Frieden

Tom Frieden

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Atlanta, GA

Tom Frieden, MD, MPH, is director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Since 2009, Frieden has intensified CDC's 24/7 work to protect the health, safety and security of Americans including leading the agency's response to the recent Ebola epidemic and other health emergencies. Under his direction, new CDC programs have focused on combating antibiotic resistance, preventing foodborne and healthcare-associated infections, helping Americans quit smoking, addressing the prescription drug overdose epidemic and advancing global health security worldwide.

He previously led New York City's program that cut multidrug-resistant tuberculosis by 90 percent, and helped India prevent more than 3 million tuberculosis deaths. As New York City's health commissioner from 2002 to 2009, he helped reduce teen smoking by half and adult smoking by one-third. Frieden received his medical and master's of public health degrees from Columbia University. He completed infectious disease training at Yale University.

Emily Gurley

Emily Gurley

Centre for Communicable Diseases, ICDDR,B
Dhaka, Bangladesh

Dr. Emily Gurley is an infectious disease epidemiologist and the Acting Director for icddr,b's Program for Emerging Infections where she leads a multi-disciplinary group of researchers on studies of the transmission and epidemiology of a variety of emerging and vaccine preventable diseases. Gurley has worked in infectious disease research in Bangladesh for more than a decade and currently leads studies on Nipah virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, hepatitis E virus, dengue, Chikungunya, rotavirus, and hospital acquired infections.

Her academic interests include improving the communication and collaboration between field epidemiologists and infectious disease modelers and development of novel surveillance strategies. Her research adopts a One Health approach to the study and prevention of infectious disease, taking into account the ecological context in which human disease occurs.

Gurley is an Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University and a key collaborator for the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Global Disease Detection site in Bangladesh.

Christian Happi

Christian Happi

Redeemer's University
Redemption City, Nigeria

Professor Christian T. Happi is a Professor of Molecular Biology and Genomics in the Department of Biological Sciences, Redeemer's University. He holds a BSc in Biochemistry from the University of Yaounde, Cameroon in addition to an MSc and PhD in Molecular Parasitology from the University of Ibadan. He did his post-doctoral fellowship in Molecular Biology and Genomics at Harvard University, School of Public Health, where he subsequently worked as a Research Scientist. He is currently the Dean of the Post Graduate College and the Director of the World Bank funded African Center of Excellence for Genomics of Infectious Disease (ACEGID) at Redeemer's University, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria.

Happi's research focuses on Human Genomics, Molecular Biology and Genomics of Infectious Diseases, especially Malaria, Lassa fever and Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). His research activities consist of using highly innovative approaches that combine patient care, fieldwork, laboratory work, genomics and metagenomics methods. In addition, Happi is passionate about building research capacity and human resources through training and mentoring young African scientists.

Happi's research has resulted in the discovery of new viruses in Nigeria as well as the development of new and rapid diagnosis for malaria, Lassa fever and EVD. His research also used genomics epidemiology to understand the transmission dynamics and evolution of Lassa fever and EVD in West Africa. Furthermore, Happi has enabled identification of new genes associated with human resistance to infection of Lassa fever virus in West African populations.

Adaora Igonoh

Adaora Igonoh

First Consultants Medical Centre
Lagos, Nigeria

Ada Igonoh is a medical practitioner, public health advocate, and motivational speaker. She graduated from the University of Ghana Medical School, where she completed a bachelor of medicine and bachelor of surgery degree (Mb.CHb).

Igonoh contracted Ebola in July 2014 while treating Liberian diplomat, Patrick Sawyer, at First Consultants Medical Centre in Lagos, Nigeria. She was diagnosed with the virus and admitted to the Lagos State Ebola Isolation Centre on the 3rd of August. Igonoh survived against all odds and was discharged nearly two weeks later after testing negative for Ebola.

Igonoh is determined to use her experience to help others suffering from Ebola and to proffer solutions for a sustainable vaccine as a legacy to the memory of those who have lost their lives to the disease.

She currently works as House Physician at First Consultants Medical Centre and is pursuing a career in Public Health, Epidemiology at Tulane University in Louisiana in the hopes of reducing the burden of infectious disease in Africa.

Ernesto Marques

Ernesto Marques

University of Pittsburgh
Oswaldo Cruz Foundation
Pittsburgh, PA / Recife, Brazil

Dr. Ernesto Marques is an Associate Professor in the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology at the Center for Vaccine Research at the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health. In 2011 University of Pittsburgh and Fundação Osvaldo Cruz established a collaborative agreement and Marques has assumed the role of the liaison between the two institutions. Currently, Marques divides his time between Recife, Brazil and Pittsburgh and devotes his work to translational research on the development of preventive and therapeutic immunotherapies and diagnostic tools for epidemiological research. Marques research interests are focused on infectious diseases of global importance, such as Zika, HIV, dengue and yellow fever.

The research expertise of Marques is the engineering design of novel vaccines, immunotherapies and diagnostic markers. The strategy he uses is based on the development of detailed T and B cell epitopes maps and characterization of innate immune response (immunomes) induced by the pathogenic agents. The laboratory applies a combination of computational technologies, high throughput immune assays in human samples and suitable human transgenic animal models. Using the immunome maps, they explore patterns correlated either with immunity or pathogenicity and design novel antigen formulations containing selected epitopes , adequate delivery methods and innate immune stimulation. Currently they are applying this strategy to study Dengue, yellow fever, HIV among other agents.

Lina Moses

Lina Moses

Tulane University
New Orleans, LA

Dr. Lina Moses is a Research Assistant Professor at Tulane University in New Orleans. Her research focuses on community-acquired zoonotic diseases including Lassa fever and Ebola. Her primary interest is in the disease ecology of viral zoonoses, utilizing population biology, ecology and epidemiological methods to understand macro-level pathogen/host interactions and monitor reservoir host populations. The ultimate goal of her research is to develop community-level interventions to halt animal to human transmission.

Moses has overseen district-wide serosurveys, community prevention interventions, case investigations and contact tracing, and observational epidemiological and ecological studies partnered with the Kenema Government Hospital's ecology and community outreach teams. She is currently working with Njala University to build public health workforce capacity and training for Sierra Leone.

Jonna Mazet

Jonna Mazet

University of CA, Davis
Sacramento, CA

Jonna Mazet, DVM, MPVM, PhD, is a Professor of Epidemiology and Disease Ecology and Director of the One Health Institute in the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, where she focuses on global health problem solving, especially for emerging infectious disease and conservation challenges. Mazet is active in international One Health research programs, most notably in relation to disease transmission among wildlife, domestic animals, and people and the ecological drivers of disease emergence. Currently, she is the Global Director of a $175 million viral emergence early warning project, named PREDICT, that has been developed with the US Agency for International Development's (USAID) Emerging Pandemic Threats Program. She was elected to the National Academy of Medicine in 2013 in recognition of her successful and innovative approach to emerging environmental and global health threats.

Peter Piot

Peter Piot

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine London, UK

Peter Piot is the Director of the School and a Professor of Global Health. He is the Chair of the MRC Global Health Group and a member of the MRC Strategy Board. He is a member of the Board of the Global Health Innovative Technology Fund in Tokyo, Chair of the King Baudouin Foundation US and a member of the Oxford Martin Commission on Future Generations. Previously he was President of the International AIDS Society, Chair of the WHO Ebola Science Committee and Chair of the European Forum for Forward Looking Activities.

Piot has a medical degree from the University of Ghent (1974), and a PhD in Microbiology from the University of Antwerp (1980). In 1976 he co-discovered the Ebola virus in Zaire while working at the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp in his native Belgium, and led research on HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases and women's health, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa.

In 2009-2010 he was the Director of the Institute for Global Health at Imperial College, London. He was the founding Executive Director of UNAIDS and Under Secretary-General of the United Nations from 1995 until 2008, and was an Associate Director of the Global Programme on AIDS of WHO. Under his leadership UNAIDS became the chief advocate for worldwide action against AIDS, also spearheading UN reform by bringing together 10 UN system organizations.

Piot was a 2014 TIME Person of the Year (The Ebola Fighters) and published an acclaimed memoir, No Time To Lose ( WW Norton).

Hossain M.S. Sazzad

Hossain M.S. Sazzad

Centre for Communicable Diseases, ICDDR, B
Dhaka, Bangladesh

Dr. Hossain M.S. Sazzad is the technical lead of a hospital-based Nipah encephalitis surveillance program with the government of Bangladesh. His current research focuses on emerging and unknown disease outbreak investigations into viruses such as Nipah. He is also the technical lead of a postmortem needle biopsy study in Bangladesh that aims to identify the etiology of human deaths. His work on global polio eradication includes identifying immunodeficiency-associated vaccine derived polio virus among primary immunodeficiency disorder patients from various hospitals in Bangladesh.

Sazzad has contributed to multiple infectious disease and epidemiology manuscripts on topics including Hepatitis E, risk factors for infant morbidity and mortality from acute respiratory infection, and Nipah encephalitis screening in Bangladesh. Dr. Sazzad received his medical degree from Sher-e-Bangla Medical College and has a Masters in Health Economics from the Institute of Health Economics in Dhaka, Bangladesh. He completed his fellowship in infectious disease epidemiology.

Celina Maria Turchi Martelli

Celina Maria Turchi Martelli

Oswaldo Cruz Foundation
Recife, Brazil

Celina Maria Turchi Martelli is a researcher at the Aggeu Magalhães Research Center, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FioCruz) – Pernambuco, and she has scholarship as a Specialist Visiting Fellow at the foundation since 2014. Her recent work in studying children born with microcephaly to mother with the Zika virus in Brazil was instrumental in highlighting the dangers of the Zika virus to the WHO and CDC. She is a researcher and Steering Committee member at the Technology Assessment Institute for Health and Advisor to the Graduate Programs of Tropical Medicine and Public Health Infectious Diseases at the Federal University of Goiás (UFG) ; Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE) and FioCruz (PE). She is a retired full professor at the Tropical Institute of Pathology and Public Health, Federal University of Goiás / Department of Public Health. She has a Master's degree in epidemiology from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine / UK , and a PhD from the Department of Preventive Medicine, University of São Paulo (USP).

Dr. Regina Coeli Ferreira Ramos

Dr. Regina Coeli Ferreira Ramos

Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital
Recife, Brazil

Dr. Regina Coeli Ferreira Ramos is a medical instructor and coordinator for the ambulatory pediatric AIDS clinic since 2004 and has monitored and followed children with microcephaly / congenital Zika virus infection at the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital in Recife, Brazil since August 2015. She has participated in the creating the Microcephaly Protocol for the Secretary of Health for the State of Pernambuco. Her work mainly focuses in the following areas: pediatrics, infectious diseases, pediatric AIDS, and public health. Since August 2015, she has focused on patients microcephaly / Zika virus / Chikungunya . Before coming to Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital, she was Deputy Professor of Tropical Medicine at the University of Pernambuco (UFPE) from 2009 to 2011. She has a Master in Health Sciences from UPE.

Dr. Maria Angela Wanderley Rocha

Dr. Maria Angela Wanderley Rocha

Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital Recife, Brazil

Dr. Maria Angela Wanderley Rocha is an Associate Professor and Director of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Pernambuco. She is also the Coordinator of Infectious Diseases Section and Parasitic Children's Diseases at Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital. She has a master's degree in Medicine from the Federal University of Pernambuco specializing in Tropical Diseases.

Sofia Bastos Pinto

Sofia Bastos Pinto

OXITEC, Ltd.
Campinas, Brazil

Sofia Bastos Pinto, PhD, currently works a geneticist at Oxitec of Brazil. Her work focuses on a program to create genetically modified mosquitos to reduce the Aedes Aegypti populations in Brazil. She has a doctorate in Molecular Biology from the European Molecular Biology Laboratory.

The Latest Outbreak News