Glossary

Feedbacks
Climate feedbacks are interactions between processes within the climate system which result in an initial process triggering changes in a second process that in turn influence the initial one.
Forcings
Climate forcings refer to an energy imbalance caused by natural or man-made processes causing an energy imbalance between incoming energy from the Sun and outgoing heat from the Earth.
Little Ice Age
The Little Ice Age is a time of intense cold recorded by historians in Europe.
Natural factors and processes
Natural factors include variable changes in the sun's intensity or slow changes in the Earth's orbit around the sun. Natural processes within the climate system include changes in ocean circulation.
Sunspots
Sunspots are temporary disturbances in the visible surface of the sun. They appear dark because temperatures are considerably lower than in surrounding areas. Sunspots occur where solar magnetic fields emerge from the inside of the Sun to form expanding loops above its surface.
Total Solar Irradiance (TSI)
Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) is the radiant energy received by the Earth from the sun, over all wavelengths, outside the atmosphere. TSI interaction with the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and landmasses is the biggest factor determining our climate.
W/m2
Watts per square meter