Glossary

Biosphere
The biosphere includes the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. The biosphere includes all living organisms on Earth.
Global Climate Change
Global climate change is change recorded over an extended length of time (decades or longer) with regards to precipitation, temperature, or wind caused by natural and/or manmade factors.
Hydrosphere
The hydrosphere includes all the Earth's water found in the oceans, glaciers, streams, lakes, the soil, groundwater, and in the air.
Lithosphere
The lithosphere is the rigid outermost shell of the Earth. It comprises the crust and the portion of the upper mantle.
Storm Surge
A storm surge is an offshore rise of water associated with a low-pressure weather system, such as a hurricane or tropical cyclone. Storm surges are caused primarily by high winds pushing on the ocean's surface causing the water to pile up higher than usual.
Thermal Expansion
Thermal expansion is the increase in volume of water as temperature is increased. In liquid water, the distance between molecules is increased when there is more heat energy in the system.