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'During the war, you just kept thinking that life cannot begin until this is over. You just had to see, again all the boys that you had known and been fond of and know they were home safely.' -Katharine Phillips

For families in Mobile, Luverne, Sacramento, Waterbury – and every other town in America – World War II would change their lives dramatically. Women in particular faced new responsibilities and new opportunities as husbands, brothers, and fathers went off to war. Those on the home front also had to endure months and sometimes years of waiting and worrying for their loved ones overseas to come home safely.

“It’s terrible to live in fear that you’re going to lose the person you love so, and you have no control over it at all,” said Katharine Phillips, whose kid brother, Sidney, was overseas with the 1st Marine Division.

“Once the war started like that, you didn’t know where they were, you didn’t know if they were alive or dead,” Dolores Silva said. “You didn’t know if you were going to get a letter from them and then find out that they had died right after they had written the letter. So, it just kept building up inside of you.”

As the war progressed and casualties mounted, the stream of telegrams and newspaper headlines telling of new losses could be terrifying. Martina Ciarlo spent most mornings at church in prayer for her son Babe. Jackie Greer used a map to trace the path of her boyfriend, pilot Quentin Aanenson, across Europe.

“Following that war was the best history lesson I ever had,” she said. “I got a big map, and every day I’d get crayons out. Every day. Certain colors meant this group is here. Certain colors meant they’d moved there. And I kept up with that war. I learned more about Europe than I had ever learned at school.”

Woman in New Mexico seated at a kitchen table writing a letter.
Library of Congress
A woman in New Mexico writes a letter on her kitchen table.

Before the war young women typically worked for a few years, then left their jobs when they married and had children. But when the war broke out and millions of men left factory jobs to fight overseas, the government encouraged women to enter the workforce, often to do jobs they had never done before.

By 1943, six million women had entered the work force, and nearly half of them were working in defense plants. LIFE magazine paid tribute to the mythical “Rosie the Riveter” as “neither drudge nor slave but the heroine of a new order.” Rosie’s image was used in government advertising campaigns encouraging women to enter the workforce with the slogan “We Can Do It”.

As soon as she graduated from high school, Emma Belle Petcher moved to Mobile from the tiny town of Millry, Alabama. Most of her girlfriends had taken secretarial jobs once they’d gotten out of high school, but Emma Belle, like her father, loved to take things apart. She wanted a different kind of job, and applied for work at Brookley Field. She breezed through a series of tests and got a job working on airplanes. “First of all, I took the test and I had a very high mechanical ability which I’ve always loved. Tinkering, tinkering with mechanics. So they put me in a school to learn airplane accessories – that was starters, generators, alternators and some other things,” said Petcher. “So we did those parts, just those little instruments, over and over and over until graduation. We could almost put them together blindfolded. We couldn’t make a mistake because it was very vital. Because we were to repair the planes that came in for repair at the Brookley Field.”

Women also joined the military in large numbers. Over 350,000 women donned uniforms in the Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WACs) the Navy’s Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service (WAVES), the Army Air Corps’ Women’s Auxiliary Service Pilots (WASPS), the Coast Guard’s SPARS and the women’s branch of the Marines.

Emily Lewis entered the war as a nurse. “I was at St. Vincent’s Infirmary, which was a nursing school, in Little Rock, Arkansas. I was in the operating room with Sister Mary Bertha, and we heard about Pearl Harbor, and were horrified. Just absolutely ... tears in our eyes. And I said, ‘I’m going to join the Army.’ And she said, ‘We need you here. But the government needs you worse. You go down tomorrow and join.’

“Pearl Harbor just pointed out to everybody that we needed to do something, we needed to help England,” Lewis added. “We’re in trouble ourselves. And I just felt I had to, I had to help. I could do something. And that’s what I wanted to do.”

Female welders labor at Alabama Dry Dock and Shipbuilding Company.
The University of South Alabama Archives
Female welders labor at Alabama Dry Dock and Shipbuilding Company.

Whether in the military or the workforce, millions of women left their home towns and were living on their own for the first time. They were earning good money and discovering they could handle jobs traditionally reserved for men. For the first time, many women experienced both social and economic independence.

Barbara Covington moved from Fresno to Sacramento and found a job within a week. “It was being away from home, being on your own,” she said. “And of course all the servicemen were there and we were meeting new people all the time. It was wonderful. Servicemen came from all over. We dated and went on a lot of USO dances and quite a few romances started.

“We rented a room from a lady here in Sacramento,” Covington added. “She was a hard-shell Baptist. A hard-shell Baptist means a person that goes by all those rules: no dancing, no drinking, no smoking ... No makin’ out on the sofa, even if it’s just pettin’ and kissin’. So, she kept us in line pretty good until we could get out of there for the evening. If I was talking on the telephone, I had to try to do it in code, because I had learned, that she knew my mother’s phone number and she had called my mother and told her that she thought I was too young to be going to the Bay area with a group of people.”

The loneliness experienced by men and women forced apart, the feeling that the next day might be one’s last, the opportunities for sexual adventure afforded to young people for the first time, all affected the most intimate aspects of American life. The rate of female alcoholism rose fivefold; arrests for female juvenile delinquency skyrocketed. The birthrate rose for the first time in two decades; the marriage rate went up, but the divorce rate soared, too.

“There was a sense of urgency because you didn’t know what or when or how,” said Jeroline Green, who married Walter Thompson six months after meeting him. “The war might be over in another day or it might last for another hundred years.”

The romances that blossomed during the war did not always turn out well. Petcher lived at the YWCA in Mobile with other young women who were also away from home for the first time:

“I was a daring young person, but there was a limit,” she said. “They would go out with the guys and get pregnant and then be in very bad, hot water. I now remember one my friends came to me one day and said, she was awfully upset, she was pregnant. People are people. And boys are boys. And girls are girls. And you know what comes natural, a lot of them did.”

Life was changing not only for women but for all Americans – especially children.

As America mobilized for total war, families at home were asked by their government to do without most of the luxuries and many of the necessities they had begun to take for granted. Everything seemed to be rationed or in short supply: gasoline and fuel oil and rubber; bobby pins and zippers and tin foil; shoes and whiskey and chewing gum; butter and coffee and nylons and tomato ketchup and sugar; canned goods and cigarettes and the matches needed to light them. But many people tried to get around rationing, and a thriving black market grew up to satisfy those who couldn’t do without. According to one study, one in every four retail transactions during the war was illegal.

The Office of Civilian Defense called upon each American family to become a “fighting unit on the home front.” Everyone was asked to collect scrap metal from which armaments could be made. In one year alone, Mobile’s citizens amassed 22 million pounds. Children were the most avid collectors.

“We’d get our little radio flyer wagons and go around the streets and knock on doors and collect everything we could,” Burt Wilson said. “That’s how we felt we were participating in the war effort.”

Kids collected and squashed cans. They gathered milkweed for safety vests, unearthed tires for rubber drives and bought stamps instead of candy to help with the bond drives.

Waterbury kids gather atop a giant heap of metal scraps collected for a war drive.
Fred Chesson
Waterbury kids gather atop a giant heap of metal scraps collected for a war drive.

“Well, I think Luverne was cleaner during the war than, than at any time in its history,” Jim Sherman said. “Primarily because we kids would go out and we’d go to the alleys, back roads, ditches, anything to find something out of metal because you could get like a penny a pound for something of this nature. And then, if you took them down to the theater, you could get in if you had like two, three, four pounds of scrap metal, you would get a free ticket. My two brothers and I went out one time and made a horrendous haul. We had more than enough to get into the theater, so the kids who didn’t have enough, we were down on Main Street right in front, right by the theater and we’re handing out, you know, what do you need? Need a tire? Here’s an old rim. Here’s an old piece of metal or whatever it was. And so, Doc Bomean who was the manager of the theater came down and told us, ‘I don’t want you doing this anymore. These kids have to get their own stuff.’ ”

For many children Hollywood movies were their window to the war.

“We couldn’t wait for the next war film to come out because it was filled with heroism and everybody sacrificing for the war and everybody who died, died for a cause,” Wilson said. “One I particularly liked was a Ronald Reagan film with Errol Flynn called, ‘Desperate Journey,’ they were always wisecracking to the Nazis, and we loved to see that, you know. The biggest audience response came like from a movie ‘Flying Tigers’ with John Wayne, and when he shot down Japanese planes, and the Japanese pilot would hold his hands to his face and the blood would come out of his fingers, we would jump up and cheer because the good guys were winning.

“All kids played war when we were, you know, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 – those ages,” Wilson said. “But it’s interesting the way we played war because nobody ever died. If you got shot, somebody came to your aid and fixed you up and then you could rise up and shoot again. And there was no stopping. You could hit five or six times and they’d come and fix you up and you would rise up and shoot again.”

Sometimes, even children had to come face to face with the true cost of the war.

“What amounted to a surrealistic feeling about the war came to an end one day when our neighbors, put a gold star in the window and pulled all the blinds down. Their oldest son had been killed in Italy,” said Wilson. “I really grieved for the whole family. And in Sacramento in those days, the way you dealt with something like that was pulling all the shades down and never coming out of the house. And so every time you walked past that house, the whole idea of death was brought home to you because of the shades drawn and the gold star in the window.”

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During the war, 57% of those employed outside the military were women.

In the final months of the war, women in the workplace had risen 50% since 1940.

Of the 1 million African Americans who entered the work force during the war, 600,000 were women.

“Rosie the Riveter” was the fictionalized persona who represented the millions of women who went into war work.

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We can do it!
National Archives

So many men entered military service that there weren’t enough left to build the ships, planes and weapons needed to fight the war. The Office of War Information turned to the only resource left — women. They created a campaign of posters that inpired women to pursue work as mechanics, machinists and other jobs that had not been available to women before the war began.

See more war posters »

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Katharine Philips
Video IconKatharine Philips »
Phillips worked at the government nursery school for children of the women who labored at the Mobile shipyards.

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War Rationing & Stamps

The war required those at home to sacrifice certain goods. The government called for rationing such items as meat, coffee, butter, cheese, sugar and gas. Stamp books were issued to limit how much an individual could buy. The average driver was allowed three gallons of gas per week.

Emma Belle Petcher
Video IconEmma Belle Petcher »
A gas purchase on a lonely road nearly led to a fatal shooting.

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The U.S. Office of War Information created this 1943 film about how the country was working together to win the war.
Jim Sherman received this ration book and stamps at 8 years old. Each ration stamp was numbered and featured a tank.

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Barbara Covington
Video IconBarbara Covington »
Dressing up was hard to do when shoes were made of cardboard and came in only a few colors.

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A Child Prisoner

Sascha Weinzheimer was 8-years old living on a large sugar plantation in Luzon with her family when the Japanese attacked the Philippines. She kept a diary of her war experiences within the Santo Tomas Prison Camp in Manila.

Read pages from Sascha Weinzheimer’s prison camp diary »

Sascha Weinzheimer
Video IconSascha Weinzheimer »
Children talked to each other about the brutality they witnessed outside the prison camp.

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Geography and War Maps

Before the Japanese attacked on December 7, 1941, most Americans could not have found Pearl Harbor on a map. In the two and a half years that followed, they learned a host of new names of the places their sons were fighting – Kasserine Pass, Utah Beach and Omaha Beach; and, on the other side of the world, Guam and Bataan and Guadalcanal, Midway and Saipan.

Close up of <em>The Sacramento Bee</em> newspaper for December 19, 1944. The map shows the German offensive during the Battle of the Bulge.

© The Sacramento Bee, 1944

Close up of The Sacramento Bee newspaper for December 19, 1944. The map shows the German offensive during the Battle of the Bulge.

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Burt Wilson
Video IconBurt Wilson »

The war was the square map on the front page of the local newspaper, The Sacramento Bee.

See a selection of newspapers and other media »

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Jim Sherman
Video IconJim Sherman »

Kids could make “big money” renting their bikes to servicemen on leave.

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See all photographs and media on children in “Search & Explore”»

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See all “Women's Roles” photographs and media in “Search & Explore”»