Additional Resources

Equality and the 14th Amendment

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What to the Slave is the Fourth of July? (Grades 9-12)
A student activity. Frederick Douglass (1818–1895) was a former slave who became the greatest abolitionist orator of the antebellum period. During the Civil War he worked tirelessly for the emancipation of the four million enslaved African Americans.

Slavery and the American Founding: The "Inconsistency not to be excused”(Grades 9-12)
This lesson focuses on the views of the founders as expressed in primary documents from their own time and in their own words. Students see that many of the major founders opposed slavery as contrary to the principles of the American Revolution. Students gain a better understanding of the views of many founders, even those who owned slaves – including George Washington and Thomas Jefferson – who looked forward to a time when slavery would no longer mar the American Republic.

A House Dividing: The Growing Crisis of Sectionalism in Antebellum America(Grades 9-12)
In this unit, students will trace the development of sectionalism in the United States as it was driven by the growing dependence upon, and defense of, black slavery in the southern states.

The Emancipation Proclamation: Freedom's First Steps(Grades 9-12)
Why was the Emancipation Proclamation important? While the Civil War began as a war to restore the Union, not to end slavery, by 1862 President Abraham Lincoln came to believe that he could save the Union only by broadening the goals of the war. students can explore the obstacles and alternatives we faced in making the journey toward "a more perfect Union."

The Battle Over Reconstruction(Grades 9-12)
This curriculum unit of three lessons examines the social, political and economic conditions of the southern states in the aftermath of the Civil War and shows how these factors helped to shape the Reconstruction debate as well as the subsequent history of American race relations.

NAACP's Anti-Lynching Campaigns: The Quest for Social Justice in the Interwar Years(Grades 9-12)
Curriculum Unit Overview: During the years 1909 to 1939, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People sought passage of anti-lynching legislation. Although this proposed legislation failed to become law, much can be learned by examining the NAACP's anti-lynching campaign about how Americans in the interwar period understood the federal system, interpreted the Constitution, and responded to calls for social justice.

JFK, the Freedom Riders and the Civil Rights Movement(Grades 9-12)
Students learn how civil rights activists, state and local officials in the South, and the Administration of President Kennedy come into conflict during the early 1960s.

The Fight for Equal Opportunity in the 1960s(Grades 9-12)
This lesson provides students with an opportunity to study and analyze the innovative legislative efforts of Presidents Kennedy and Johnson in the social and economic context of the 1960s.

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