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Unforgivable Blackness: A Film Directed by Ken BurnsAbout the Film Rebel of the Progressive Era Sparring The Fight of the Century Knockout Ghost in the House For Teachers Ghost in the HouseJack Johnson's Legacy

Jack Johnson, c. 1940 Twenty years after Johnson lost the heavyweight title to Jess Willard, a talented young boxer from Detroit named Joe Louis began to rise up the ranks of black fighters. In the first 11 months of his professional career, Louis racked up 22 straight victories and 18 knockouts. But he was haunted by the legacy of Jack Johnson. Since 1915, no Negro had been allowed to compete for a major boxing title. Louis' trainer, Jack Blackburn, warned him:

You know, boy, the heavyweight division for a Negro is hardly likely. The white man ain't too keen on it. You have to be something to go anywhere. If you really ain't gonna be another Jack Johnson, you got some hope. White man hasn't forgotten that fool nigger with his white women, acting like he owned the world.

His handlers set out to create a public persona for Louis that was as different from Johnson as possible. Louis was not to smile in the ring, nor exult in victory, nor say anything unkind about any opponent. There were to be no speeding tickets and no gambling. And Louis was never to be photographed with white women. (Nevertheless Louis — like Johnson — was a magnet for women of all races, and he is said to have had intimate but discreet relationships with film star Lana Turner and Norwegian skater/actress Sonja Henie.) Louis promised publicly that he would "never disgrace the race."

Johnson was livid. He openly criticized Louis and bet heavily on his opponents. When white heavyweight champion James J. Braddock unexpectedly gave Louis a shot at the title — the first time a white champion had agreed to fight a black challenger since Tommy Burns 29 years earlier — Johnson even volunteered to help train Braddock. The white champion didn't take up Johnson's offer, and in Chicago's Comiskey Park on June 22, 1937, Louis knocked out Braddock in the eighth round — to become Heavyweight Champion of the World.

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Muhammad Ali poses in front of a marquee advertising 'The Great White Hope' at the Alvin Theatre in New York, 1968 Forty years later, and 21 years after Johnson's death, playwright Howard Sackler reintroduced the world to Jack Johnson — the Jack Johnson that the champion would have wanted the world to remember. In December 1967, Sackler's play The Great White Hope premiered at Washington D.C.'s Arena Stage. The play told the tale of a black boxer, Jack Jefferson, who is forced to leave the country after trumped-up morals charges are filed because of an affair with a white woman. Jack Jefferson's story is a thinly-veiled, idealized version of Jack Johnson's. The play's star, James Earl Jones, played Jefferson as Johnson saw himself, according to Johnson biographer Randy Roberts — "heroic, honest, passionate, intelligent, and a moral force for his generation."

Jones won rave reviews for his performance, and the following year, the play moved to Broadway with the original cast — the first regional theater production to do so — where it won the Tony Award for Best Play, the New York Drama Critics' Circle Award and the Pulitzer Prize. In 1970, a film adaptation directed by Martin Ritt resulted in Academy Award nominations for Jones and co-star Jane Alexander.

In the summer of 1968 heavyweight boxer Muhammad Ali came to see the play. At the time, Ali was in the midst of his battle with the federal government over his refusal on religious grounds to fight in Vietnam. His boxing license had been suspended and his passport seized, and he was reviled by a major segment of white society. The play affected Ali deeply. "That's my story," he told Jones backstage after the performance. "You take out the issue of white women and replace it with the issue of religion. That's my story!"

Ali's cornerman, Drew "Bundini" Brown, used the boxer's affinity for Johnson to encourage him in the ring. During several of Ali's major fights, Bundini was heard to call from the corner, "Ghost in the house! Ghost in the house! Jack Johnson's here! Ghost in the house!"

Editor's note: This page was modified on January 11, 2005 to correct a misidentification of playwright Howard Sackler and to replace a photo that may have been incorrectly captioned.