The Mann Act
The Mann Act: Full Text
Pardon Petition (PDF)
Johnson's FBI File
The search for the "white hope" not having been successful, prejudices were being piled up against me, and certain unfair persons, piqued because I was champion, decided if they could not get me one way they would another....
The U.S. Department of Justice began investigating Jack Johnson for possible violations of the Mann Act almost from the moment the law went into effect in 1910, but prosecutors did not find an incident from which to build a case for over two years. On October 11, 1912, Mrs. F. Cameron-Falconet came to Chicago, accusing Johnson of kidnapping her daughter, Lucille Cameron. In less than one week, Johnson was arrested by Chicago police on state kidnapping charges, and U.S. District Attorney James H. Wilkerson began building a federal Mann Act case, despite cautions from Attorney General George W. Wickersham. Lucille Cameron, though not cooperating with investigators, was brought before a Federal grand jury. The Mann Act case fell apart when it became clear that Cameron had been a prostitute before she left Milwaukee and had been in Chicago for more than three months before she'd first met Johnson. On December 4, Johnson and Cameron were married.
Assistant U.S. District Attorney Harry A. Parkin was not satisfied, and began looking for other women who Johnson might have transported across state lines. He asked the Justice Department's Bureau of Investigation (forerunner of the FBI) to mount an all-out effort to "secure evidence [of] illegal transportation by Johnson of any other women for an immoral purpose." Federal agents fanned out across the country, looking for something anything to suggest that Johnson had violated the Mann Act.
Soon an anonymous tip came into the Bureau of Investigation's Chicago office, suggesting that they look for a prostitute calling herself "Belle Gifford" or "Mrs. Jaques Allen." Agents soon traced Johnson's former companion Belle Schreiber to a whorehouse in the nation's capital. Schreiber's memory of dates and places seemed encyclopedic, and her bitterness at Johnson's treatment of her made her just the witness investigators were looking for. Within days, the federal grand jury had issued seven Mann Act indictments, charging Johnson with transporting Schreiber from Pittsburgh to Chicago on October 15, 1910, for the purpose of prostitution and debauchery. Johnson was arrested on November 7, and Judge Kennesaw Mountain Landis (who would one day become the first commissioner of baseball and ensure that the sport remained segregated) set bail at $30,000, then threw both Johnson and his bail bondsman into the Cook County Jail. It took a week to bail them out.
The case of United States v. John Arthur Johnson finally began in Chicago's Federal Building on May 7, 1913, with Judge George Albert Carpenter presiding. Schrebier was the chief witness for the prosecution. It took an all-white jury less than two hours to find Johnson guilty on all counts. On June 4, Carpenter sentenced Johnson to one year and one day in federal prison.
On June 24, while free pending appeal, Johnson disappeared. The following day he showed up in Montreal, where Lucille was waiting for him. Three days later, they set sail for France. Johnson found a few fights in Europe, but his status as a fugitive made him much less marketable as a boxer, and the outbreak of World War I the following year collapsed the European boxing market entirely. With money running out, the Johnsons sailed for South America.
In late 1914, two ambitious promoters Jack Curley and Harry Frazee, who would one day buy the Boston Red Sox and sell Babe Ruth to the New York Yankees began working to arrange a title fight between Johnson and Jess Willard. The fight was set for 45 rounds in Havana on Monday, April 5, 1915. Willard was given little chance to win, but he was younger than Johnson and, unlike Johnson, took his training seriously. After 26 rounds in 105° heat, Johnson was exhausted. A straight right from Willard took him by surprise, and he slid to the canvas. Willard was now the Heavyweight Champion of the World. It would be seven years before a black man was allowed to compete for any boxing title again and 15 more until a black challenger got a shot at the heavyweight championship.
The day after he lost to Willard, Johnson tried to return to the U.S., but Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan refused to issue him a passport. With most of Europe still at war, the Johnsons headed for Spain, then Mexico. In the spring of 1920, Johnson approached the U.S. government and agreed to surrender. On July 20, he stepped across the border at Tijuana and into U.S. custody. He was transported to Leavenworth, Kansas, to serve his sentence and was released on July 9, 1921. Once again, Lucille was waiting for him.