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American History, Sociology, Civics
Students will use Johnsonís life as a means to
investigate why the system of legal and de facto segregation was inherently
threatened by the legitimization of interracial relationships.
Ask students to define what they think race
means, as best as they can.
- Write down a random list of different population
categories (examples might be Asians, Italians, Jews, Negroes, Pygmies, American
Indians, English, Arabs, Poles, Nubians, Iraqis, Muslims, Melanesians,
Republicans, Mayans, Ainu, Han Chinese, Dravidians, Hindus, Africans, poor
people), and ask students which of these, in their opinion, is or is not a race and why.
- Now write the following statement on the board.
Nearly all observers admit that the Negro child is on the whole quite as intelligent as those of other human varieties but that on arriving at puberty all further progress
seems arrestedÖ It is more correct to say of the Negro that he is non-moral
Ask students who might have written this statement, for what
audiences, and when? (It appeared in the 1875 edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica , Vol. 17 page 326, followed by lengthy pseudo-scientific explanations from leading experts of
the day explaining why the Negro was mentally and physically inferior.)
Discuss the following questions:
- Why have definitions of race changed in the past 90 years?
- Do students think that some, most, or all people living in 1875 believed that what the Encyclopaedia Britannica said was fact? Who benefited from this definition? Who was penalized by this definition?
- If people living around the turn of the last century were
so certain that Caucasians were superior to Negroes, why were they afraid to
let an African-American boxer fight a white American for the heavyweight boxing
Before viewing the film put the following quotation from the program on the board.
The problem of the twentieth century is the color line.
W.E.B. Du Bois.
- Ask students to try to define the term the color line, using whatever knowledge they have acquired before their study of Jack Johnson.
Play the segments "The Forbidden District," "The Golden Smile" and "A Hard Man to Handle" from Episode One of Unforgivable Blackness (from approximately 23 minutes into the film until approximately one hour and five minutes into the film). As students watch the film, ask them to take notes in two columns: "The rules of the color line" and "How Johnson conquered the color line." Then discuss the following questions:
- What races were divided by the so-called color line? To whose advantage?
- What were some of the laws that demarcated segregation in the Jim Crow-era South?
- In both the North and South, what were some of the social conventions that demarcated the color line? How did they separate blacks from whites and place blacks in the inferior and subservient position?
- What did it mean to cross the color line? What kind of behavior was disapproved of by
whites because it crossed the color line?
- What were some of the penalties, both formal and informal, for crossing the color line?
- What were some of Jack Johnsonís methods for surmounting the color line?
Analyze statements about the color line.
After Johnson became the heavyweight champion in a fight against Tommy Burns in Sidney, Australia, two newspapers commented on the fight and its relation to the color line. Distribute these quotes and ask students to comment on their meaning in the light of what they have learned.
The color line was... used in the most select pugilistic [boxing] circles as a subterfuge behind which a white man could hide to keep some husky colored gentleman from knocking his block off. It is a handy little invention which costs nothing and probably has saved many a white manís
life. Many men who are well known in public life today owe their well-preserved appearance and success to this lifesaving compound.
New York Morning Telegraph, 1908
A negro is the champion pugilist. [The] dark peoples of the earth are threatening to play the mischief generally with the civilization of the white man. Is the Caucasian played out? Are the races that we have been calling inferior about to demand to us that we must draw the color line in everything if we are to avoid being whipped individually and collectively?
Detroit Free Press, 1909
Ask students to evaluate this quotation:
I have found no better way of avoiding race prejudice than to act with people of other races as if prejudice did not exist.
Do students think this attitude was useful to Johnsonís struggle against racism? Do they think it is a useful strategy for fighting prejudice today? Why or why not?
- Ask students to compare the strategies used by Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du
Bois in fighting racism. Where would students place Johnson in relation to the views of these two leaders?
The Johnson-Jeffries fight in Reno in 1910 earned Johnson the definitive title of World
Heavyweight Champion. Riots broke out across the country. (If you did not show this section it begins with "A Word to the Black Man" at approximately one hour, 38 minutes into Episode One.)
- Ask students why Johnsonís victory undermined the theory (white racial supremacy) upon which the entire system of the color line was based. Why were whites frightened after the fight?
- Ask the class to make a diagram that expresses what they have learned about the color line.
- Divide a bulletin board in two with a line lengthwise. Label the line "the color
line." Above it write "Caucasians" and below it write "Negroes." Ask each student to write one "rule" of the color line on an index card and place it on the color line. Topics can include voting rights; segregation in transportation, schools, public facilities, eating and housing facilities; and so forth.
- Discuss with students some of the penalties African-Americans faced for crossing the
color line, such as loss of jobs, arrest, lynching, race riots. Also ask if whites were permitted to cross the color line and what happened if they did?
- Research racial categories in the U.S. Census from its inception until today. What do the categories reflect about changing American views about race?
The teaching activities in this guide were designed to meet curriculum standards outlined below where applicable. However, we recommend that you closely examine the resource content for your individual classroom needs.
American History from the National Center for History in the Schools
- Era 6. Standard 2: Massive immigration after 1870 and how new social patterns, conflicts, and ideas of national unity developed amid growing cultural diversity.
- Era 9. Standard 4: The struggle for racial and gender equality and for the extension of civil liberties.
Civics and Government from the National Standards for Civics and Government
Standard III. D.
Standard V. B.
- The place of law in American society; judicial protection of the rights of individuals.
- What are the rights of citizens; explain the importance to the individual and to society of such personal rights as due process of law and equal protection; freedom of expression and association; how personal rights are securedÖby such means as the rule of law.
Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McRel)
- Social Sciences (Behavioral Studies) Standard 4: Understands conflict, cooperation, and interdependence among individuals, groups and institutions.
- Historical Understanding Standards 1 and 2: Understands how to analyze chronological relationships and patterns; Understands the historical perspective.
- United States History Standards: Understands issues and perspectives of different groups during the Progressive era; Understands the social and cultural influence of former slaves in cities of the North.
- Language Arts Standards: Writes persuasive compositions; Understands the philosophical assumptions and basic beliefs underlying an author's work; Uses a variety of criteria; Understands how the type of media affects coverage of events or issues; Understands the ways in which image-makers carefully construct meaning; Understands the role of the media in addressing social and cultural issues.
Joan Brodsky Schur is Social Studies Curriculum Consultant for the Village Community School in New York City where she has taught Social Studies and English for over 20 years. She is co-author of In A New Land: An Anthology of Immigrant Literature and creator of the American Letters series published by Interact. Joanís articles have appeared regularly in Social Education, and her work can be found at the Web sites of the National Archives, PBS TeacherSource, and the National Council for Teachers of English. Joan is currently serving on the PBS TeacherSource Advisory Group and on the International Activities Committee of the National Council for the Social Studies.