The Amish are not a monolithic group. In fact, they live in more than 450 settlements spread across 30 states and one Canadian province. The founders of each of these settlements determine their local Ordnung or set of church rules. Some new settlements became stricter than the communities they left, and others relax the rules. Women’s head coverings and dress styles might change. Maybe gas-powered lawn mowers were not allowed in the home community, but they are allowed in the daughter settlement.
In “The Amish: Shunned,” diversity is especially noticeable in the contrast between the community where Anna came from and the one where Naomi came from. Anna is from a Swartzentruber group, which is the strictest of the strict. Naomi comes from a more progressive community. Here are some of the differences:
* Naomi managed to fly to Florida and live there with minimal supervision.
* Anna was not even allowed to ride in a car, which meant she had never been further than fifty miles (a two-day buggy ride) from her parents’ home.
* Naomi had a decent basic education, even though she was educated in an Amish school. She was able to pass a GED without too much trouble, soon after she left the culture.
* Anna was also taught in an Amish school, but one in which education is de-emphasized. It is not important to the parents whether their children learn proper English. Anna was reading at the fourth grade level when she left her community.
* Naomi left with a desire to further her education and become a nurse. She looked forward to making her own choices.
* Anna struggled with making her own choices, because back in her community, nearly every decision was made for her. She was still being tutored in preparation of earning her GED.
So the variations of the rules from one community to another can make a person’s head spin -- from minutiae to larger life questions. To most people looking in from the outside, it all seems so arbitrary. Why are most Amish people allowed to ride in cars, though they may not own them? Why do some Amish allow their buggies to be decked out with reflector tape and LED lights (some even have blinking lights and turning signals), and other Amish will go to jail before mounting an orange SMV symbol on their buggies? What does restricting technology have to do with living a godly life anyway?
The answer to these questions was clarified for me when an Amish man in “Shunned” talks about obedience to church rules. He says, “You lose obedience, you lose the church. Amen.”
And that is the common thread in all Amish communities -- from the most traditional groups to the most progressive -- it is about obeying the rules that were established, no matter what those rules may be. “The Amish way” is about humbling oneself by “giving up” or “giving in” for the sake of the community. It is what gives the Amish their strong sense of community, so steeped in tradition.
Obedience to the church Ordnung is not so easy for everyone. It’s why some of us feel compelled to leave the Amish to follow the path that is most authentic to who we are. However, it is the sense of community and our place in it that those of us who leave inevitably miss the most. In the mainstream culture where individuality is valued over community, it is hard -- if not impossible -- to find the sense of community we left behind.
Is it any wonder that the seven of us whose stories are followed in the documentary feel torn between our two worlds? We all try, at least for a time, to have a foot in both worlds. But ultimately what the Amish teach us is right: that one is either Amish or not -- there is no in-between. Eventually we just have to choose between one lifestyle and the other. This difficult choice is only required of those of us who question the lifestyle or wonder about life in the outside world. Those who are content with knowing their place in the community and obeying the Ordnung, may never even think about “the road not taken.”
Naomi and Anna take divergent paths. One sacrifices family and community for her freedom, while the other sacrifices her personal freedom to take her place in her family and community -- as a daughter; as a favorite aunt of 40 nieces and nephews; and as an obedient church member. What is evident in both their lives is that their choices were heart-wrenchingly difficult to make.
Saloma Miller Furlong is author of two books, Why I Left the Amish and Bonnet Strings: An Amish Woman’s Ties to Two Worlds. She appears in 2012's “The Amish” and in “The Amish: Shunned.” Visit her website and her blog to read more of her reflections about her heritage.
Watch American Experience Executive Producer Mark Samels describe what's coming in February to PBS. The Amish: Shunned centers on seven people who have been shunned as well as voices from the Amish community defending the practice. Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid were emblematic figures that became legend. The Rise and Fall of Penn Station about a railroad company's effort to conquer Manhattan.
The Amish: Shunned
In 2012 we aired a program called The Amish, which was actually the highest-rated show we've had on American Experience in ten years. There was one part of the story that had only gotten a light treatment, and that is the Amish practice of shunning. The Amish believe that once you have been baptized as an adult, if you decide to leave, that you should have no contact with the community, and that means your family. So our story centers on seven characters who create different pieces of the mosaic of this picture of shunning as well as voices from the Amish community itself, defending the practice. It's an emotional roller coaster through a set of universal experiences.
Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid
Another installment of the Wild West, this is a terrific story about Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid. For years, you have Butch and Sundance out there robbing trains. They were lone individuals robbing from these wealthy corporations at the time -- railroads. They weren't redistributing their money. And they become sort of emblematic figures, slightly endearing figures, very flawed figures in some ways, but these are mythological characters because there is something about them that seems to be bigger than themselves. They seem to represent a time and a place and, in some ways, some ideals.
The Rise and Fall of Penn Station
The story of the Penn Station project, which is the story of The Pennsylvania Railroad's effort to, in a way, conquer Manhattan. They were the dominant railroad of the time, but they had no direct route into Manhattan. So The Pennsylvania Railroad and Alexander Cassatt set out to solve that problem. So they built these amazing tunnels underneath the Hudson and the East Rivers to connect with the extension of the line up into New England. They built really one of the monuments of American architecture -- the original Penn Station. This is a story of the people that were involved, from the sandhogs that were underneath the Hudson River, to Cassatt who's pushing this project and envisioning it every step of the way. It's a dramatic story, one that's really, I think, little-known because the original Penn Station was torn down.
Check out what's coming up in January 2014 on American Experience. Watch this three-minute video in which our Executive Producer Mark Samels details our new films premiering in January, and read the synopses below. (Our Coming in February video is coming soon!)
The Poisoner's Handbook - Premiering January 7
Based on Deborah Blum's bestselling book of the same title, The Poisoner's Handbook looks back at the early 20th century, when the average American medicine cabinet was a would-be poisoner's treasure chest, with radioactive radium, thallium, and morphine in everyday products. The scientific knowledge to detect and prevent crimes committed with these materials lagged behind until 1918. New York City's first scientifically trained medical examiner, Charles Norris, and his chief toxicologist, Alexander Gettler, turned forensic chemistry into a formidable science and set the standards for the rest of the country. Solve real life Tales From the Poisoner's Handbook with our interactive graphic novel, and watch the preview.
1964 - Premiering January 14
It was the year the Beatles came to America, Cassius Clay became Muhammad Ali, and three civil rights workers were murdered in Mississippi. It was the year when Berkeley students rose up in protest, African Americans fought back against injustice in Harlem, and Barry Goldwater’s conservative revolution took over the Republican Party. In myriad ways, 1964 was the year when Americans faced choices: between the liberalism of Lyndon Johnson or Barry Goldwater’sgrassroots conservatism, between support or opposition to the civil rights movement, between an embrace of the emerging counterculture or a defense of traditional values. Watch the preview!
War Letters - Broadcasting January 21
Originally premiering in 2001, this documentary tells the story of American wars from the viewpoint of the men and women on the front lines. In every American war from the Revolutionary War to the Persian Gulf War, American military men and women have captured the horror, pathos and intensity of warfare by writing letters home. The website features a gallery of WWII cartoons, aninterview with Andy Carroll, founder and director of The Legacy Project, and the full streaming film.
The Amish - Broadcasting January 28
Originally broadcast in 2012, The Amish is a pre-cursor to our February 2014 premiere of The Amish: Shunned. This documentary is an extraordinarily intimate portrait of contemporary Amish faith and life; the film questions why and how the Amish, an insistently separatist and communal culture, have thrived within one of the most open, individualistic societies on earth. It asks what our fascination with the Amish says about deep American values. And The Amish looks at what the future holds for a community whose existence is so rooted in the past. The website features a gallery of archival images of the Amish, a timeline of the Amish in America, FAQ, and the full streaming film.
It seems like every week there's a new article about the negative effects of Internet culture on American society. We're cautioned that the Internet is making us more isolated, more divided, and less empathetic; or that Twitter and Facebook are eroding our already limited collective attention span and capacity for sustained, nuanced discussion. Some have even questioned whether the Internet may ultimately spell the end of "deep reading."
Our latest American Experience project, News & Then, takes a more optimistic view: that digital media can be a powerful tool for connection and engagement, and can deepen our understanding of the world we live in and the historic struggles that have shaped it.
Every middle schooler who passed through Mr. Bement's eighth grade social studies class in Ellington, Connecticut learned two things. (Well, to be fair, we learned more than just two things. But these two really stuck.) The first, and more debatable of the two, was that Willie Nelson is a musical genius and the greatest country singer ever to grace the airwaves. The second, and more relevant to this conversation, was that the Gettysburg Address is one of the most powerful and important speeches ever delivered, and is worthy of learning top to bottom. So it was that scads of 13-year-olds in the small town where I grew up could recite Lincoln's famous words. Many of us still can today.
The challenge went out each year -- put your hands on a copy of the Address (which, pre-Google, likely meant photocopying it from the library's World Book Encyclopedia), learn each word, and recite it before the class.
In the interest of authenticity, I skipped the library and used a reproduction of the Address printed on parchment -- the sort an overeager student might pick up on a family vacation to Washington, DC. I dutifully studied the cursive words on the "aged" paper. I looked up what a "score" is and wondered why Lincoln couldn't just have said 87 years. I tried to figure out how you could consecrate ground. I mean, I had grown up Catholic so I knew the word consecrate. But I figured that word was reserved for church. I also looked up the word "hallow." Was that sort of like "hollow"? (No, as it turns out.) I repeated the 272 words in my head and aloud. To my parents and my sisters. And finally to the 20 pairs of adolescent eyes looking back at me in front of the classroom. Challenge completed. Lesson learned.
Twenty years (or should I say "one score") later, I find myself working for PBS's preeminent history series. And now I've thrown down the gauntlet, asking people from across the country to send videos of themselves reciting the Address. People responded with gusto.
See, as smart as Lincoln was, he made one major miscalculation. About halfway through his address, he humbly purported that "The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here." Boy was he wrong. And we have the videos to prove it.
But as wildly inaccurate as Lincoln's statement turned out to be, it's worth thinking about. Lincoln suspected that the Battle of Gettysburg would be indelibly imprinted on the hearts and minds of Americans. After all, how could a battle that left a staggering 51,000 men dead, wounded, captured, or missing recede into the shadows of our memory? How could the turning point of the deadliest war fought on American soil be forgotten? How could his words loom larger in history books than the battle that inspired them? Pondering those questions, it's easy to understand why Lincoln may have misjudged.
So now I put forth another challenge -- a challenge I feel would do Mr. Bement proud. Read the Gettysburg Address. Memorize it. But more importantly, learn what it means. Find out what happened on that battlefield in Pennsylvania. Understand what each side was fighting for, even if you disagree. What was so important to those 51,000 Union and Confederate soldiers, and the thousands more who got out unscathed, that they willingly put themselves in the line of fire? I remember Mr. Bement asking those questions. But it took me 20 years to realize that the answers were more important than the task at hand.