The state of Mississippi's plan to bankrupt CORE backfired when, on August 14, 1961, all but nine of the Freedom Riders returned to Jackson for their arraignment.
Group singing provided solace for Freedom Riders facing the constant threat of violence. It was also an effective political tool.
In the decades after WWII, civil rights leaders relied on legal and legislative challenges to dismantle segregation.
In 1947, 16 men—eight black and eight white—boarded a bus to test compliance with a recent Supreme Court ruling that outlawed segregation on interstate bus travel.