A History of National Security
The Los Alamos National Laboratory offers history resources online including biographies and images.

U.S. Department of Energy – The Manhattan Project
The Office of History and Heritage Resources presents photos, a timeline, and more.

Institute for Advanced Study: Robert Oppenheimer
Read a summary of Oppenheimer’s career.

J. Robert Oppenheimer Centennial Exhibit
The University of California at Berkeley’s Office for History of Science and Technology hosts this biographical site about Oppenheimer.

Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Memorial
The Hiroshima National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims collects stories and photographs from survivors of the bombing. The site also includes a list of related links.

The Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum
This site includes photographs illustrating the damage caused by the atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan.

Atomic Education Online
Access an interactive site with teacher resources from the National Atomic Museum.

Atomic Heritage Foundation
This site offers video, history, quizzes and more.


Alperovitz, Gal. The Decision to use the Atomic Bomb. Ed. Sanho Tree, et al. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995.

Bernstein, Jeremy. Oppenheimer: Portrait of an Enigma. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2004.

Carson, Cathryn, and David A Hollinger, editors. Reappraising Oppenheimer: Centennial Studies and Reflections. Berkeley: The Regents of the University of California, 2005.

Davis, Nuel Pharr. Lawrence and Oppenheimer. New York: Da Capo Press Inc., 1986.

Dyson, Freeman. Disturbing the Universe. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1979.

Weapons and Hope. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1984.

Goodchild, Peter. J. Robert Oppenheimer: Shatterer of Worlds. New York: Fromm International Publishing Company, 1985.

Herken, Gregg. Brotherhood of the Bomb: The Tangled Lives and Loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest Lawrence, and Edward Teller. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2002.

Lifton, Robert Jay, and Greg Mitchell. Hiroshima in America: Fifty Years of Denial. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1990.

McMillan, Priscilla J. The Ruin of J. Robert Oppenheimer and the Birth of the Modern Arms Race. New York: Viking, 2005.

Pais, Abraham, and Robert P Crease. J. Robert Oppenheimer: A Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Polenberg, Richard, editor. In The Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer: The Security Clearance Hearing. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002.

Rhodes, Richard. The Making of the Atomic Bomb. New York: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 1986.

Royal, Denise. The Story of J. Robert Oppenheimer. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1969.

Schweber, Silivan S. In The Shadow of the Bomb. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Sherwin, Martin J., and Kai Bird. American Prometheus: The Triumph and Tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer. New York: Vintage Books, 2006.

Smith, Alice Kimball, and Charles Weiner, editors. Robert Oppenheimer: Letters and Recollections. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1980.

Stern, Philip M., and Harold P. Green. The Oppenheimer Case: Security on Trial. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1969.

Thorpe, Charles. Oppenheimer: the Tragic Intellect. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2006.

Wang, Jessica. American Science in an Age of Anxiety: Scientists, Anticommunism, & the Cold War. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

York, Herbert. The Advisors: Oppenheimer, Teller & the Superbomb. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1989.

York, Herbert. Race to Oblivion: A Participant’s View of the Arms Race. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1970.


My American Experience

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Share Your Story

The Cold War and the nuclear arms race dominated American foreign policy for decades. Did fears of nuclear weapons affect your life? Should the U.S. have engaged in creating the world’s most powerful bombs? What is the most theatening weapon today?