The Great Fever
AMERICAN EXPERIENCE's website on Yellow Fever in America.

Panama Canal Authority
The Panama Canal's Official Website.

The Panama Canal History Museum
The history of the U.S. in Panama with a focus on the Canal.

Smithsonian Institution
Make the Dirt Fly! An online interactive from the Smithsonian Institution Libraries Exhibition.

The Review of Arts, Literature, Philosophy and the Humanities
Excerpt from The Path Between the Seas, “Mosquitoes, Malaria, and the Panama Canal” by David McCullough.

Harvard University Open Collections.
Tropical Diseases and the Construction of the Panama Canal, 1904-1914.

Panama Canal Gallery
From the BBC, a collection of photo galleries of the Canal.

Panama Canal History Museum
An online museum of the Canal's history with photos, documents and articles.

Panama Canal Society
An organization dedicated to perpetuating relationships formed during canal construction.


Bennett, Ira E. History of the Panama Canal: Its Construction and Builders. Washington, D.C.: Historical Pub., 1915.

Cameron, Ian. The Impossible Dream: The Building of the Panama Canal. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1971.

Conniff, Michael L. Black Labor on a White Canal: Panama, 1904-1981. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 1985.

Greene, Julie. The Canal Builders: Making America's Empire at the Panama Canal. New York: Penguin, 2009.

LeFeber, Walter. The Panama Canal: A Crisis in Historical Perspective. New York: Oxford UP, 1989.

Lewis, Lancelot S. The West Indian in Panama: Black Labor in Panama, 1850-1914. Washington, D.C.: University of America, 1980.

McCullough, David G. The Path Between the Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal, 1870-1914. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1977.

McGuinness, Aims. Path of Empire: Panama and the California Gold Rush. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 2008.

Missal, Alexander. Seaway to the Future: American Social Visions and the Construction of the Panama Canal. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin, 2008.

Newton, Velma. The Silver Men: West Indian Labour Migration to Panama, 1850-1914. Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle, 2004.

Otis, Fessenden N. History of the Panama Railroad.... New York: Harper, 1867.

Panama Canal Museum. Write of Passage: Stories of the American Era of the Panama Canal. Seminole, FL: Rose Printing, 2008.

Parker, Matthew. Panama Fever: The Epic Story of One of the Greatest Human Achievements of All Time -- The Building of the Panama Canal. New York: Doubleday, 2007.

Russell, Thomas Herbert. The Panama Canal: Pictorial View of the World's Greatest Engineering Feat.... Chicago: Hamming Pub., 1913.

Schott, Joseph L. Rails Across Panama; The Story of the Building of the Panama Railroad, 1849-1855. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1967.

Sibert, William L., and John F. Stevens. The Construction of the Panama Canal. New York: D. Appleton, 1915.

Simon, Maron J. The Panama Affair. New York: Scribner, 1971.

Snapp, Jeremy Sherman. Destiny by Design: The Construction of the Panama Canal. Lopez Island, WA: Pacific Heritage, 2000.

United States Isthmian Canal Commission. Annual Reports. Washington, D.C.: 1906.

United States of America Navy Department. Naval Explorations and Surveys. Washington, D.C.: 1879.

Van Hardeveld, Rose Mahr. Make the Dirt Fly!. Hollywood, CA: Pan, 1956.

Waldo, Fullerton L. "An Engineer's Life in the Field on the Isthmus." Engineering Magazine 30.3 (December 1905).

Waldo, Fullerton L. "The Panama Canal Work, and the Workers." Engineering Magazine 31.5 (February 1907).

Zimmermann, Warren. First Great Triumph: How Five Americans Made Their Country a World Power. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2004.

----. Population and Deaths from Various Diseases.... Washington, D.C: 1907.

My American Experience

My American Experience photos

Share Your Story

Have you gone through the locks? Or, did you have a family member who worked on the Panama Canal? Share your photos, stories and experiences.

  • Additional funding for this program was provided by

  • Arthur Vining Davis Foundations
  • NEH