Don Carlos Buell
Born: March 23, 1818
Died: November 19, 1898
Remembering Shiloh, one soldier who'd fought under Buell described him as "a magnificent officer on the field, whose personal conduct and management had been superb."
Ulysses S. Grant
Born: April 27, 1822
Died: July 23, 1885
After his first big victory in Tennessee, Grant received thousands of cigars as gifts from grateful Northerners. He went through plenty of them at Shiloh. "Having such a quantity on hand," he later said, "I naturally smoked more than I would have done."
Henry Wager Halleck
Born: January 16, 1815
Died: January 9, 1872
In the winter of 1845-1846, Halleck gave lectures at the Lowell Institute in Boston, Massachusetts on the science of war. He published them as a book, "Elements of Military Art and Science," which was used as a manual during the Civil War.
Stephen A. Hurlbut
Born: November 29, 1815
Died: March 27, 1882
Hurlbut and his men endured a long first day at Shiloh, fighting fiercely in a peach orchard owned by Sarah Bell. He survived the Civil War to serve in Congress and as a diplomat in Columbia and Peru.
Benjamin M. Prentiss
Born: November 23, 1819
Died: February 8, 1901
Prentiss and his division heroically held their ground from 6 a.m. until 5:30 p.m. on the first day at Shiloh, but were ultimately captured. They fought in an area where bullets whizzed by so thickly, it was later called the Hornet's Nest.
William Tecumseh Sherman
Born: February 8, 1820
Died: February 14, 1891
Sherman and Grant would forge a lifelong friendship at Shiloh, where Sherman led an assault while "dismounted, his arm in a sling, his hand bleeding, his horse dead, himself covered with dust, his face besmeared with powder and blood."
Born: April 10, 1827
Died: February 15, 1905
After the war, Lew Wallace, the son of an Indiana governor, wrote Ben Hur, a popular epic novel of ancient Rome. It would be made into a movie starring Charlton Heston nearly 80 years later, in 1959.
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Born: May 28, 1818
Died: Feb. 20, 1893
Beauregard, who came from a Louisiana Creole family, spoke French before he learned English. After the war, he would turn down offers to lead several foreign armies.
Born: March 22, 1817
Died: September 27, 1876
Known as a strict disciplinarian, the controversial Bragg inspired little devotion among his soldiers; one called him a "merciless tyrant." One of the largest military bases in the world, Fort Bragg in North Carolina, is named for him.
William J. Hardee
Born: October 12, 1815
Died: November 6, 1873
An instructor at West Point before the war, Hardee published a textbook, Rifle and Light Infantry Tactics, that was used by both sides. Hardee survived the war -- but lost his 16-year-old son Willie, who was killed in battle at Bentonville, North Carolina in the war's final weeks.
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
Born: January 21, 1824
Died: May 10, 1863
Many of Jackson's students at the Virginia Military Institute, where he taught before the war, thought he was a lousy teacher. But he became a legend and got his nickname in 1861, when he and his brigade steadfastly confronted the enemy on a Virginia battlefield.
Albert Sidney Johnston
Born: February 2, 1803
Died: April 6, 1862
On the eve of war, Johnston was one of the most respected military officers in the country. A close friend of Confederate president Jefferson Davis, Johnston chose to resign his U.S. army commission to fight -- and die -- for the Confederacy.
Robert E. Lee
Born: January 19, 1807
Died: October 12, 1870
The future Confederate commander in chief graduated from West Point without a single demerit on his record. He came from a distinguished Virginia family: his father was a Revolutionary War hero, and two great-uncles signed the Declaration of Independence.
Born: April 10, 1806
Died: June 14, 1864
The "Fighting Bishop" found his religious calling while still at West Point, and resigned from the army soon afterward. Polk did missionary work, rose to Bishop of Louisiana in the Episcopal church, and founded a university in Tennessee, before taking up arms in the war.
The bizarre saga of the Symbionese Liberation Army and Patty Hearst's kidnapping and conversion to her captors' cause.
A civil rights leader in Harlem before entering politics, Powell was one of the most charismatic black leaders of the 20th century.
The impact of tuberculosis in America, once the deadliest killer in human history.
This film follows the 65 "British soldiers" and 67 "American rebels" who reenact the 1775 Battle of Lexington and Concord.
American comandante William Morgan went to Cuba to help Fidel Castro return the country to a democracy. Instead, four years later, he was executed.
Before World War II, young Chinese Americans defied cultural tradition in San Francisco's Chinatown, previously closed to outsiders.
The staggering death tolls of the Civil War permanently altered the character of the republic and the psyche of the American people.
From letters of the second U.S. president, John Adams, and his wife, Abigail, this film explores their tumultuous times.