When the flag of the Hawaiian people came down in 1898, there was an amazing wailing. The Hawaiian people had done everything in their power not to be annexed by the United States.
The first white Americans to settle in the Islands arrived in the 1820s.
Haunani-Kay Trask is a historian, human rights advocate, and professor at the University of Hawaii's Center for Hawaiian Studies.
Stirling's racial prejudices coupled with his militaristic view of the American territory of Hawai'i, set the stage for his role in the Massie affair.