Kennedy's national security advisor, McGeorge Bundy, conveys the president's Vietnam policy to the State Department.
National Security Action Memorandum
November 22, 1961
TO: The Secretary of State
SUBJECT: First Phase of Viet-Nam Program
The President has authorized the Secretary of State to instruct our Ambassador to Viet-Nam to inform President Diem as follows:
1. The U.S. Government is prepared to join the Viet-Nam Government in a sharply increased joint effort to avoid a further deterioration in the situation in South Viet-Nam.
2. This joint effort requires undertakings by both Governments as outlined below:
a) On its part the U.S. would immediately undertake the following actions in support of the GVN [government of Vietnam]:
(1) Provide increased air lift to GVN forces, including helicopters, light aviation and transport aircraft, manned to the extent necessary by United States uniformed personnel and under Unites States operational control.
(2) Provide such additional equipment and Unites States uniformed personnel as may be necessary for air reconnaissance, photography, instruction in and execution of air-ground support techniques, and for special intelligence.
(3) Provide the GVN with small craft, including such United States uniformed advisors and operating personnel as may be necessary for operations in effecting surveillance and control over coastal waters and inland waterways.
(4) Provide expedited training and equipping of the civil guard and the self-defense corps with the objective of relieving the regular Army of static missions and freeing it for mobile offensive operations.
(5) Provide such personnel and equipment as may be necessary to improve the military-political intelligence system beginning at the provincial level and extending upward through the Government and the armed forces to the Central Intelligence Organization.
(6) Provide such new terms of reference, reorganization and additional personnel for United States military forces as are required for increased United States military assistance in the operational collaboration with the GVN and operational direction of U.S. forces and to carry out the other increased responsibilities which accrue to the U.S. military authorities under these recommendations.
(7) Provide such increased economic aid as may be required to permit the GVN to pursue a vigorous flood relief and rehabilitation program, to supply material in support of the security efforts, and to give priority to projects in support of this expanded counter-insurgency program. (This could include increased military pay, a full supply of a wide range of materials such as food, medical supplies, transportation equipment, communications equipment, and any other items where material help could assist the GVN in winning the war against the Viet Cong.)
(8) Encourage and support (including financial support) a request by the GVN to the FAO [UN Food and Agriculture Organization] or any other appropriate international organization for multilateral assistance in the relief and rehabilitation of the flood area.
(9) Provide individual administrators and advisors for the Government machinery of South Viet-Nam in types and numbers to be agreed upon by the two Governments.
(10) Provide personnel for a joint survey with the GVN of the conditions in each of the provinces to assess the social, political, intelligence, and military factors bearing on the prosecution of the counter-insurgency program in order to reach a common estimate of these factors and a common determination of how to deal with them.
b. On its part, the GVN would initiate the following actions:
(1) Prompt and appropriate legislative and administrative action to put the nation on a wartime footing to mobilize its entire resources. (This would include a decentralization and broadening of the Government so as to realize the full potential of all non-communist elements in the country willing to contribute to the common struggle.)
(2) The vitalization of appropriate Governmental wartime agencies with adequate authority to perform their functions effectively.
(3) Overhaul of the military establishment and command structure so as to create an effective military organization for the prosecution of the war and assure a mobile offensive capability for the Army.
A man who symbolized African American equality fought a proponent of Hitler's Aryan racial theories on the eve of World War II.
A civil rights leader in Harlem before entering politics, Powell was one of the most charismatic black leaders of the 20th century.
Intrepid journalist Nelly Bly went on a journey around the world breaking the record of Julius Verne's fictional character.
A portrait of JFK and his brother Robert as they confront Alabama governor George Wallace over segregation.
The six-part story of a frontiersman farmer and a wealthy Confederate slave-owner's daughter.
With the clock ticking and the city under fire how many could be saved?
The Alabama governor and presidential candidate promised segregation forever.
The women's suffrage movement won the right to vote when the 19th Amendment passed in 1920.