The president spells out his authority to desegregate Alabama schools, by force if necessary.
Telegram from President Kennedy to Governor George Wallace of Alabama
May 13, 1963
In response to the question raised in your telegram of last night, Federal troops would be sent into Birmingham, if necessary, under the authority of Title 10, Section 333, Paragraph 1 of the United States Code relating to the suppression of domestic violence. Under this section, which has been invoked by my immediate predecessor and other Presidents as well as myself on previous occasions, the Congress entrusts to the President all determinations as to the necessity for action; the means to be employed and the adequacy or inadequacy of the protection afforded by State authorities to the citizens of that State.
As yet, no final action has been taken under this section with respect to Birmingham inasmuch as it continues to be my hope, as stated last might, "that the citizens of Birmingham themselves will maintain standards of responsible conduct that will make outside intervention unnecessary." Also, as I said last Thursday, in the absence of any violation of Federal statutes or court orders or other grounds for Federal intervention, our efforts will continue to be focused on helping local citizens to achieve and maintain a peaceful, reasonable settlement. The community leaders who worked out this agreement with a great sense of justice and foresight deserve to see it implemented in an atmosphere of law and order. I trust that we can count on your constructive cooperation in maintaining such an atmosphere; but I would be derelict in my duty if I did not take the preliminary steps announced last night that will enable this Government, if required, to meet its obligations without delay.
Meet the Wizard of Odd. Robert Ripley was a new media star and the most popular man in America.
America's first great songwriter, Stephen Foster, wrote 200 songs but died a penniless alcoholic at 37.
Harry Truman was responsible for finding America's place at the start of the Cold War. Part of the award-winning Presidents collection.
America's first First Lady defined the role of the President's wife and in the process changed the face of the American presidency.
The story of James Garfield, one of the most extraordinary men ever elected president, and his assassination by a deluded madman.
The first man to fly across the Atlantic, Charles Lindbergh was unprepared for the attention, particularly after his son was kidnapped.
Dwight D. Eisenhower was one of America's least understood presidents. Part of the award-winning Presidents collection.
An unprecedented look at the life and legacy of one of America's most enduring and influential storytellers.