The president spells out his authority to desegregate Alabama schools, by force if necessary.
Telegram from President Kennedy to Governor George Wallace of Alabama
May 13, 1963
In response to the question raised in your telegram of last night, Federal troops would be sent into Birmingham, if necessary, under the authority of Title 10, Section 333, Paragraph 1 of the United States Code relating to the suppression of domestic violence. Under this section, which has been invoked by my immediate predecessor and other Presidents as well as myself on previous occasions, the Congress entrusts to the President all determinations as to the necessity for action; the means to be employed and the adequacy or inadequacy of the protection afforded by State authorities to the citizens of that State.
As yet, no final action has been taken under this section with respect to Birmingham inasmuch as it continues to be my hope, as stated last might, "that the citizens of Birmingham themselves will maintain standards of responsible conduct that will make outside intervention unnecessary." Also, as I said last Thursday, in the absence of any violation of Federal statutes or court orders or other grounds for Federal intervention, our efforts will continue to be focused on helping local citizens to achieve and maintain a peaceful, reasonable settlement. The community leaders who worked out this agreement with a great sense of justice and foresight deserve to see it implemented in an atmosphere of law and order. I trust that we can count on your constructive cooperation in maintaining such an atmosphere; but I would be derelict in my duty if I did not take the preliminary steps announced last night that will enable this Government, if required, to meet its obligations without delay.
John Wesley Powell's epic journey into the unknown Grand Canyon was filled with adventure as his team mapped the Colorado River for the first time.
A writer's childhood and the development of her photography and writing about the American South.
John Scopes' free speech trial pitted science against religion after the teacher presented Charles Darwin's theory of evolution in a Tennessee school.
America's Robin Hood who robbed not only the rich but the poor and defenseless as well, always saving the treasure for himself. Part of the Wild West collection.
A saga of ambition, wealth, family loyalty and personal tragedy.
An African American civil rights leader, Ida B. Wells was born into slavery before becoming a journalist in Memphis.
During the defining months of the offensive against Germany, American forces faced a moral and strategic dilemma.
Robert E. Lee, the leading Confederate general of the American Civil War, remains a source of fascination and, for some, veneration.