The president spells out his authority to desegregate Alabama schools, by force if necessary.
Telegram from President Kennedy to Governor George Wallace of Alabama
May 13, 1963
In response to the question raised in your telegram of last night, Federal troops would be sent into Birmingham, if necessary, under the authority of Title 10, Section 333, Paragraph 1 of the United States Code relating to the suppression of domestic violence. Under this section, which has been invoked by my immediate predecessor and other Presidents as well as myself on previous occasions, the Congress entrusts to the President all determinations as to the necessity for action; the means to be employed and the adequacy or inadequacy of the protection afforded by State authorities to the citizens of that State.
As yet, no final action has been taken under this section with respect to Birmingham inasmuch as it continues to be my hope, as stated last might, "that the citizens of Birmingham themselves will maintain standards of responsible conduct that will make outside intervention unnecessary." Also, as I said last Thursday, in the absence of any violation of Federal statutes or court orders or other grounds for Federal intervention, our efforts will continue to be focused on helping local citizens to achieve and maintain a peaceful, reasonable settlement. The community leaders who worked out this agreement with a great sense of justice and foresight deserve to see it implemented in an atmosphere of law and order. I trust that we can count on your constructive cooperation in maintaining such an atmosphere; but I would be derelict in my duty if I did not take the preliminary steps announced last night that will enable this Government, if required, to meet its obligations without delay.
Two days in 1967 revealed a nation divided over a war that continues to haunt us.
The boy behind the myth, who in just a few short years transformed himself from a skinny orphan to the most feared man in the West and an enduring icon. Part of The Wild West collection.
The story of a Russian immigrant and anarchist who is said to have inspired the assassination of President William McKinley.
The U.S. government's response to the Holocaust was slow and fueled by complex social and political factors.
Richard Nixon faced impeachment but also ended the Vietnam War. Part of the award-winning Presidents collection.
A central figure in the narrative of how the west was won, Wyatt Earp and his story became an American legend. Part of the Wild West collection.
Richard Sears and Alva Curtis Roebuck brought consumer goods to the hands of every American with their Sears and Roebuck catalogue.
The life of the president who saw himself as the heroic defender of the "shining city on a hill." Part of the award-winning Presidents collection.