Helpful Hints

1a. George Washington played a central role in the founding of the nation, both as commander of the Patriot forces that successfully won American independence and as the nation's first President. Thomas Jefferson contributed to the growth of the nation by approving the purchase of the Louisiana Territory in 1803. Abraham Lincoln helped preserve the nation by leading it to victory over the seceding southern states in the Civil War. Theodore Roosevelt contributed to the development of the nation by strengthening its role in world affairs through his participation in the Spanish-American War and his efforts as President to build the Panama Canal.

1b. Students should explain their choices.

1c. Essays should be 500-word (or less) statements that would be appropriate to inscribe on Mount Rushmore. The class' judgment of the best should include decisions about how important the ideas are in the submissions, how well they are expressed, how future generations might understand them, and how appropriate they might be for carving on a monument to four great presidents. 

2. You might want to hold a class discussion or vote on the proposals after they have been presented to the class.

1. If a particular object is too large, fragile, or valuable to be brought to class, the student should describe it for the class instead.

2. Posters should contain the information outlined in the activity.

1a. Desecration is destruction of a sacred place. The Lakota Sioux consider the Black Hills sacred, so the carving of figures on this land could be considered desecration.

1b. Some students may consider it appropriate, since it acknowledges the Native Americans who live in the Black Hills. Other students may consider it inappropriate, since it will cause additional damage to land the Lakota Sioux regard as sacred.

1c. You might want to hold a class discussion on what factors make certain places sacred to different people.

2. Students should place their stickers over the appropriate location.

1a. About 84 percent.

1b. Pie graphs should represent the proportions shown by the statistics.

2. If any students are having trouble coming up with a way to express their opinion through a cartoon, you might suggest that they imagine a conversation among the Presidents shown on Mount Rushmore, or between one of the Presidents and a worker or visitor to the mountain.

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From the Empire State Buiding to the carvings on Mount Rushmore, the Golden Gate Bridge, and the Space Needle, the U.S. has dozens of impressive, important, and iconic structures. Which ones have you been to? Which has had the biggest impact?