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Death and the Civil War | Timeline

Significant Civil War Battles

For four straight years, Union and Confederate soldiers battled during the bloodiest war in American history. Both sides suffered unprecedented casualties, and the severe lack of infrastructure made accurate accounting of those soldiers near impossible.

By definition, military "casualties" include not only the dead, but also the injured, ill, captured, and missing. To this day, exact numbers are impossible to determine, and scholars dispute even the most well-researched estimates. However, these staggering numbers still offer profound insight into the immense tragedy experienced by the American people throughout the Civil War.

April 12, 1861: Battle of Fort Sumter
Casualties: none

June 30, 1861: Battle of Philippi
Casualties: 30
4 Union
26 Confederate

Death-Timeline-2-1st-Manassas.jpg
Ruins of a house in Bull Run, VA, 1862, Courtesy: Library of Congress

July 21, 1861: First Battle of Bull Run/First Battle of Manassas
Casualties: 4,700
2,950 Union
1,750 Confederate

August 28-29, 1861: Battle of Hatteras Inlet Batteries
Casualties: 773
3 Union
770 Confederate

October 21, 1861: Battle of Ball's Bluff
Casualties: 1,070
921 Union
149 Confederate

November 7, 1861: Battle of Belmont
Casualties: 1,464
498 Union
966 Confederate

January 19, 1862: Battle of Mill Springs
Casualties: 671
232 Union
439 Confederate

February 6, 1862: Battle of Fort Henry
Casualties: 119
40 Union
79 Confederate

February 11, 1862: Battle of Fort Donelson
Casualties: 17,398
2,331 Union
15,067 Confederate

March 8, 1862: Battle of Hampton Roads
Casualties: 433
409 Union
24 Confederate

March 23, 1862: First Battle of Kernstown
Casualties: 1,308
590 Union
718 Confederate

Death-Timeline-3-Yorktown.jpg
Soldiers with 13-inch mortars, Courtesy: Library of Congress

 April 5, 1862: Siege of Yorktown
Casualties: 320

April 6-7, 1862: Battle of Shiloh
Casualties: 23,741
13,047 Union
10,694 Confederate

April 10-11, 1862: Battle of Fort Pulaski
Casualties: 365
1 Union
364 Confederate

April 25, 1862: Capture of New Orleans
Casualties: None

Death-Timeline-4-Fort-Pulaski.jpg
Library of Congress Fort Pulaski, April 1862

May 31, 1862: Battle of Seven Pines
Casualties: 13,736
5,739 Union
7,997 Confederate

June 6, 1862: Battle of Memphis
Casualties: 181
1 Union
180 Confederate

June 26, 1862: Battle of Beaver Dam Creek
Casualties: 1,700
400 Union
1,300 Confederate

June 27, 1862: Battle of Gaines' Mill
Casualties: 15,500
6,800 Union
8,700 Confederate

June 30, 1862: Battle of Glendale
Casualties: Undetermined

July 1, 1862: Battle of Malvern Hill
Casualties: 8,500

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House next to the Seven Pines battlefield, Courtesy: Library of Congress

August 9, 1862: Battle of Cedar Mountain
Casualties: 2,707
1,400 Union
1,307 Confederate

Death-Timeline-8-2nd-Manassas.jpg
C company, 41st NY Infantry, before the battle of Manassas, Courtesy: Library of Congress

August 28-30, 1862: Second Battle of Bull Run/Second Battle of Manassas
Casualties: 22,180
13,830 Union
8,350 Confederate

September 1, 1862: Battle of Chantilly
Casualties: 2,100
1,300 Union
800 Confederate

September 14, 1862: Battle of South Mountain
Casualties: 4,500

September 17, 1862: Battle of Antietam
Casualties: 23,100

October 8, 1862: Battle of Perryville
Casualties: 7,407
4,211 Union
3,196 Confederate

Death-Timeline-9-Antietam3.jpg
President Lincoln and General McClellan in Antietam, MD, October 3, 1862, Courtesy: Library of Congress

December 13, 1862: Battle of Fredericksburg
Casualties: 17,929
13,353 Union
4,576 Confederate

December 31, 1862 - January 2, 1863: Battle of Stones River
Casualties: 23,515
13,249 Union
10,266 Confederate

January 9-11, 1863: Battle of Arkansas Post
Casualties: 6,547
1,047 Union
5,500 Confederate

April 30 - May 1, 1863: Battle of Chancellorsville
Casualties: Unknown

May 12, 1863: Battle of Raymond
Casualties: 956
442 Union
514 Confederate

May 18 - July 4, 1863: Siege of Vicksburg
Casualties: 19,233
10,142 Union
9,091 Confederate

May 21 - July 9, 1863: Siege of Port Hudson
Casualties: 12,208
5,000 Union
7,208 Confederate

June 9, 1863: Battle of Brandy Station
Casualties: 1,090

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Confederate bodies ready for burial after Gettysburg, July 5, 1863, Courtesy: Library of Congress

July 1-3, 1863: Battle of Gettysburg
Casualties: 51,000
23,000 Union
28,000 Confederate

July 11, 1863: First Battle of Fort Wagner
Casualties: 351
339 Union
12 Confederate

July 18, 1863: Second Battle of Fort Wagner
Casualties: 1,689
1,515 Union
174 Confederate

September 19-20, 1863: Battle of Chickamauga
Casualties: 34,624
16,170 Union
18,454 Confederate

November 23-25, 1863: Battle of Chattanooga
Casualties: 12,485
5,815 Union
6,670 Confederate

May 5-7, 1864: Battle of the Wilderness
Casualties: 29,800
18,400 Union
11,400 Confederate 

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Confederate soldier after Ewell's Attack, May 19, 1864, Courtesy: Library of Congress

May 8-21, 1864: Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse
Casualties: 30,000
18,000 Union
12,000 Confederate

May 13, 1864: Battle of Resaca
Casualties: 5,547
2,747 Union
2,800 Confederate

May 15, 1864: Battle of New Market
Casualties: 1,380
840 Union
540 Confederate 

May 31 - June 12, 1864: Battle of Cold Harbor
Casualties: 15,500
13,000 Union
2,500 Confederate

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Major General A.E. Burnside and staff after Cold Harbor, Courtesy: Library of Congress

July 22, 1864: Battle of Atlanta
Casualties: 12,140
3,641 Union
8,499 Confederate

Death-Timeline-12-Atlanta.jpg

July 24, 1864: Second Battle of Kernstown
Casualties: 1,800
1,200 Union
600 Confederate

July 30, 1864: Battle of the Crater
Casualties: 5,300

August 5, 1864: Battle of Mobile Bay
Casualties: 1,822
322 Union
1,500 Confederate

August 18-21, 1864: Battle of Globe Tavern
Casualties: 5,879
4,279 Union
1,600 Confederate

August 31 - September 1, 1864: Battle of Jonesborough
Casualties: 3,149
1,149 Union
2,000 Confederate

October 19, 1864: Battle of Cedar Creek
Casualties: 8,575
5,665 Union
2,910 Confederate

November - December, 1864: Sherman's March to the Sea
Casualties: Unknown

November 29, 1864: Battle of Spring Hill
Casualties: Unknown

November 30, 1864: Battle of Franklin
Casualties: 8,587
2,326 Union
6,261 Confederate

December 15-16, 1864: Battle of Nashville
Casualties: 6,602
2,140 Union
4,462 Confederate

January 13-15, 1865: Second Battle of Fort Fisher
Casualties: 2,000

March 19-21, 1865: Battle of Bentonville
Casualties: 4,738
1,646 Union
3,092 Confederate

April 1, 1865: Battle of Five Forks
Casualties: 3,780
830 Union
2,950 Confederate

April 6, 1865: Battle of Sailor's Creek
Casualties: 9,980

Death-Timeline-17-Appomattox.jpg
The Appomattox Court House, McLean House, 1865, Courtesy: Library of Congress

April 9, 1865: Surrender at Appomattox Court House
Casualties: 700
27,805 Confederate soldiers paroled

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