Annie Oakley
Library of Congress

Annie Oakley
August 13, 1860

Annie Oakley is born Phoebe Ann Moses on the family farm in Darke County, Ohio, fifth of seven surviving children. Her Quaker parents, Jacob and Susan, have moved from Pennsylvania, where they ran an inn. In Ohio, the family supports itself with subsistence farming.


November 1860

Abraham Lincoln is elected president, and in December South Carolina becomes the first Southern state to secede from the Union. The Civil War will begin in April 1861, and many men from Darke County will serve in the military, but Jacob Moses is too old for active duty.


April 09, 1865

Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrenders to Union Commander Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia, effectively ending the war. Five days later, Lincoln will be assassinated.


Winter 1866

On a trip to the local general store, Jacob is caught in an early blizzard and, half-frozen, barely makes it back to the farm. He soon dies of pneumonia, plunging the family into financial crisis.


1867

Mary Jane, the oldest child, dies of tuberculosis. The Moses family must leave their farm and move to a smaller plot, where they struggle to get by. Anxious to help, Annie begins to set traps for birds in the nearby woods, bringing home quails and grouse.


1868

According to later stories, eight-year-old Annie takes her father's old rifle from above the fireplace, packs it with powder, heads off to the woods, and shoots a squirrel. Her horrified mother forbids her to fire a gun again.


1870

Unable to support 10-year-old Annie at home, her mother sends her to live with Samuel and Nancy Edington at the county poor farm near Greenville, Ohio. She is subsequently sent to work for a cruel family that she will never identify, referring to them only as "the wolves."


Spring 1872

After two years of hard labor and abuse, Annie runs away from the wolves and rejoins the Edingtons, who take her in and teach her to sew.


Annie Oakley with a shotgun and a fresh rabbit
Buffalo Bill Historical Center

Annie Oakley with a shotgun and a fresh rabbit
1875

Annie, who has returned to her mother's house, starts shooting game in the woods and selling it to a Greenville shopkeeper. Annie does so well that she is able to pay off the $200 mortgage on her mother's home.


Thanksgiving 1875

Annie participates in a shooting contest near Cincinnati against an Irish immigrant named Frank Butler. Butler is a well-known marksman who is performing at a theater in town and has offered to challenge any local champions. Lured by a $100 prize, Annie competes against, and defeats Butler -- she hits 25 targets in a row, while he misses the final one. Butler, though 10 years older than Annie, is smitten by this diminutive crack shot.


An early photo of Annie Oakley and Frank Butler, pictured with a dog
Circus World Museum

An early photo of Annie Oakley and Frank Butler, pictured with a dog
August 23, 1876

Annie and Frank marry. He continues to tour with his shooting act, eventually pairing up with a male partner named Baughman.


1881

Baughman and Butler team up with the Sells Brothers Circus, joining a show that features "sixty tons of animal actors." Touring with the circus for the next year, they perform feats of marksmanship and refer to themselves as "Champion Rifle Dead-Shots of the World."


May 01, 1882

His contract with the circus finished, Butler finds a new partner John Graham and returns to performing in theaters in an act they call "America's own rifle team and champion all around shots." One night before a performance in Springfield, Ohio, Graham falls ill, and Butler, needing someone to replace him, turns to Annie. She causes an immediate sensation with her shooting prowess, and soon Butler and Graham have been replaced by Butler and Oakley, as Annie is now referring to herself. The married couple join the vaudeville circuit, but in contrast to the behavior of the more risqué female players, Oakley dresses conservatively and lets her rifle do the talking. Butler handles the business and promotional aspects of their act, while Oakley becomes the star on stage.


Buffalo Bill's show poster
Buffalo Bill Historical Center

Buffalo Bill's show poster
1883

Buffalo Bill Cody's Wild West show opens in New York, one week before the new Brooklyn Bridge.


March 1884

Butler and Oakley perform in St. Paul, Minnesota, in front of an audience that includes famous Native American warrior Sitting Bull, who had defeated General George Armstrong Custer at the battle of Little Big Horn in 1876. Part of Oakley's act involves shooting out the wick of a burning candle, and Sitting Bull is so impressed by her prowess that he wants to meet her, offering $65 for a photograph of the two of them together. The meeting goes so well that Sitting Bull "adopts" Oakley, giving her the Indian name "Watanya Cicilla," or "Little Sure Shot." Ever the savvy businessman, Butler places an advertisement in a trade publication talking up the meeting.


April 1884

After a couple of years on the vaudeville circuit, Butler and Oakley sign with the Sells Brothers Circus for a 40-week engagement. That year the circus visits 187 towns in 13 states, journeying some 11,000 miles. The two welcome the steady pay but grow tired of the incessant travel under difficult conditions.


December 1884

The Sells Circus season concludes in New Orleans at the Industrial and Cotton Exposition, leaving Butler and Oakley without a job for the winter. Also in town is Cody's Wild West show, and the Butlers ask him for a job. But Buffalo Bill already has a champion shooter named Captain Bogardus, so he turns them down.


March 09, 1885

After his shooting equipment is lost in a steamship accident, Bogardus quits Cody's show. Oakley promptly renews her request for a job. Buffalo Bill is still skeptical, but he agrees to an April try-out in Louisville, Kentucky. While preparing for the audition, Oakley catches the attention of Cody's business manager, who hires her on the spot. That season she appears before 150,000 people in 40 cities, and Oakley will perform in Cody's Wild West show for almost all of the next 17 years.


June 06, 1885

Sitting Bull signs a contract to appear in the Wild West show.


Lillian Smith with a rifle
Buffalo Bill Historical Center

Lillian Smith with a rifle
1886

The Wild West show spends the summer performing on Staten Island. Almost 360,000 people attend, taking a ferry from Manhattan past the brand-new Statue of Liberty, set to be dedicated that fall, and then riding a newly constructed rail line four miles to the event grounds. A 15-year-old female sharpshooter named Lillian Smith joins Cody's show and quickly becomes Oakley's rival. Oakley responds by lopping six years off her own age, now telling the press that she was born in 1866.


Winter 1886

Cody takes his show indoors, debuting the revamped Wild West in front of 6,000 people at Madison Square Garden on the day before Thanksgiving.


The Wild West troupe sailing to London
Library of Congress

The Wild West troupe sailing to London
March 31, 1887

Oakley and the rest of Cody's performers depart New York for London on the steamer State of Nebraska. Some 180 horses and 18 buffalo also make the journey.


May 09, 1887

The American Exposition opens in London and draws 30-40,000 people a day -- the Wild West show, which the British soon dub the "Yankeeries," is its main attraction. In the course of its run, the show attracts both Queen Victoria and the Prince of Wales, both of whom meet with Annie Oakley and Lillian Smith afterwards. As the show proceeds, the two sharpshooters' rivalry intensifies.


October 31, 1887

Oakley quits the Wild West show just as it finishes its London run.


April 1888

Oakley returns to the stage, debuting in a variety show in Philadelphia. She engages in shooting competitions on the side, joins a rival Wild West show, and even acts in a play called Deadwood Dick.


February 1889

After Lillian Smith leaves Cody's Wild West show, the stage is set for Oakley to return. A newspaper announces that she will be rejoining the show in time for its trip to Paris to participate in the Universal Exposition there.


Thomas Edison in his laboratory
Library of Congress

Thomas Edison in his laboratory
Spring 1889

The Paris Exposition, which commemorates the 100th anniversary of the French Revolution, opens. It features the newly built Eiffel Tower and a Wild West show fronted by Oakley. Some 32 million people visit the Exposition, and Oakley's performance attracts two remarkable offers -- the president of France says she can have a commission in the French army, and the King of Senegal wants to buy Oakley for 100,000 francs so she can kill the tigers that are plaguing his country. Oakley declines both offers, but upon meeting famed inventor Thomas Edison, she has a request of her own -- she wants to know if he can design an electric gun. Edison says he will consider it.


Fall 1889

When the Wild West show ends its six-month Paris run, Cody and his company embark on a three-year tour of Europe.


1890

The United States Census Bureau declares that widespread settlement has brought an end to the American frontier.


October 27, 1892

Oakley returns to America a superstar, with newspapers clamoring for interviews and the public hanging on her every word.


Wild West show grounds at the Chicago Columbian Exposition
Buffalo Bill Museum and Grave

Wild West show grounds at the Chicago Columbian Exposition
May 1, 1893

The Chicago Columbian Exposition opens, commemorating the 400th anniversary of Columbus' landing in the Americas. While historian Frederick Jackson Turner gives a paper describing the closing of the American frontier, Cody's celebration of frontier life is doing brisk business. Although the Wild West show is not part of the official "White City" exposition, it attracts record crowds in its venue across the street. This year will be Cody's best, with the show playing before six million people and making a profit of one million dollars.


December 1893

The Butlers move into their new home in Nutley, New Jersey, more than a thousand miles from the "wild west" she has never lived in but has come to symbolize.


May 1894

The Wild West show sets up shop for the summer in Brooklyn. For the first time, the show can be performed at night, thanks to an enormous array of new electric lights.


Fall 1894

Oakley travels to electric light inventor Thomas Edison's studio in West Orange, New Jersey, to give a shooting demonstration in front of another one of his contraptions called a kinetoscope. Edison wants to see if the kinetoscope, forerunner of today's motion picture cameras, can capture the smoke from Oakley's shots, which it does.


October 06, 1894

The Wild West show closes for the season, a financial disappointment that Cody blames in part on the country's economic depression and the cost of running all the electric lights.


1895

In an effort to restore its past profitability, Cody takes his Wild West show back on the road, visiting 131 towns. Oakley continues to tour with the show for the next several years, crisscrossing the country by train while firing, in her estimation, more than 40,000 shots in a single year. Oakley's act is celebrated throughout the country, but life on the road is exhausting for her.


Oakley shooting in the WIld West show
Circus World Museum

Oakley shooting in the WIld West show
July 25, 1900

Oakley performs in her home town of Greenville, Ohio, for the first time as a part of the Wild West show. Given a commemorative silver cup by the townspeople, Oakley says she prizes it "more highly than anything ever presented to me."


October 29, 1901

Near the end of the Wild West season, the Butlers are in a train accident. Neither is injured but they are shaken up and decide to leave the show. Shortly thereafter, she retires from Cody's Wild West show for good, and Frank accepts a job as representative for the Union Metallic Cartridge Company.


November 1902

Oakley returns to the stage, starring as the sharpshooting heroine in The Western Girl. She receives good reviews, and the play will run until March 1903.


August 11, 1903

In Chicago, publisher William Randolph Hearst's popular, sensationalist newspapers report that Annie Oakley is in prison, sentenced for "stealing the trousers of a negro in order to get money with which to buy cocaine." Though completely false, the story is picked up by newspapers from coast to coast. Oakley is livid and demands retractions -- even though most of the newspapers comply, she is not mollified and ends up filing 55 libel suits. The legal battles will run until 1910, with Oakley traveling the country testifying in various courtrooms. Hearst will try to smear Oakley's reputation, even hiring a detective to travel to Greenville, Ohio and dig up dirt about her. But there is nothing to find, and Oakley will end up winning or settling 54 of her suits. She will collect awards ranging from $900 to $27,500, but ends up losing money when legal and other expenses are factored in.


August 18, 1908

Oakley, who has been appearing in various shooting events, learns that her mother has died and returns to Ohio.


May 1910

Oakley pays a visit to Cody's Wild West, then performing at Madison Square Garden. Buffalo Bill asks her to return to the show, but she declines.


1911

Oakley joins a rival show called Young Buffalo Wild West and performs with it for the next two years. Although now over 50, she keeps up with the show's grueling pace, traveling more than 8,000 miles in one 27-week span.


Annie Oakley, Frank Butler and their dog Dave
The Annie Oakley Center at Garst Museum

Annie Oakley, Frank Butler and their dog Dave
October 04, 1913

Annie Oakley's career in Wild West shows comes to an end -- she retires after a performance in Marion, Illinois, and moves with Butler to a waterfront cottage near Cambridge, Maryland. Meanwhile, Cody has gone bankrupt, and a creditor sells off the show's memorabilia.


Summer 1915

The Butlers embark on an automobile road trip and visit Buffalo Bill, who is now in failing health. The Butlers decide to winter in Pinehurst, North Carolina, where Oakley gives lessons to women who want to learn shooting.


Buffalo Bill standing in front of the Wild West ticket office
Library of Congress

Buffalo Bill standing in front of the Wild West ticket office
January 01, 1917

Buffalo Bill Cody dies in Denver, Colorado. Neither of the Butlers attends the funeral, but Oakley composes a eulogy for her old friend that runs in several newspapers. In it she calls Cody "the kindest, simplest, most loyal man I ever knew... the personification of those sturdy and lovable qualities that really made the West."


April 1917

The United States enters World War I. Oakley soon telegraphs the secretary of war, offering to raise a "regiment of women" to join the fight, but the government does not reply. Oakley ends up giving shooting demonstrations to raise money at various army camps around the country.


November 11, 1918

World War I ends in Allied victory -- Oakley joins the celebration at Pinehurst.


July 01, 1922

Oakley appears at a charity event on Long Island to benefit wounded soldiers. Although a bit out of practice, she still dazzles the crowd with her shooting abilities.


November 19, 1922

A car accident in Florida fractures Oakley's hip and right ankle -- for the rest of her life, she will walk with a leg brace.


December 1924

The Butlers move to Dayton, Ohio.


April 1926

Famed cowboy and humorist Will Rogers visits Oakley and later writes a glowing tribute to her in his Sunday newspaper column.


Summer 1926

In failing health, Oakley moves back to Darke County.


November 03, 1926

Oakley dies in Greenville, Ohio -- her husband of 50 years will pass away just 18 days later.


1935

The first film version of Oakley's life, the movie Annie Oakley starring Barbara Stanwyck, debuts.


"Annie Get Your Gun" on Broadway
Library of Congress

"Annie Get Your Gun" on Broadway
May 16, 1946

Rogers and Hammerstein's musical Annie Get Your Gun opens in New York with renowned singer Ethel Merman in the title role. The show will later be made into a film, and a TV series called Annie Oakley will run from 1954 to 1957.


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The legend of the Wild West has been played out in American Popular culture since the start of westward expansion. The real-life people who helped tame the west would shape the western heroes celebrated in film and television for decades.



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