More than four million people are unemployed as a result of the Wall Street Crash of 1929.
Arizona scientists reveal their newest discovery -- a ninth planet they name Pluto, after the Greek God of the underworld. The discovery sparks public interest in space and inspires Walt Disney to introduce a new animated character, Pluto -- Mickey Mouse's canine companion.
For the first time, the 30th U.S. Census asks whether the respondents owned a radio, reflecting an increased interest in communication technology and consumer goods.
The Nazi party becomes the second largest political party in Germany, overtaking the Communists.
Ray Lyman Wilbur, Secretary of the Interior under President Hoover, drives a silver railroad spike to mark the official start of the construction of the Hoover Dam. The Hoover Dam was part of a larger public works relief program to create jobs for those struggling during the first years of The Great Depression.
CBS broadcasts the New York Philharmonic live over the radio for the first time. Since the historic broadcast, the Philharmonic has continued to be a consistent presence on national radio.
The President's Emergency Committee for Unemployment Relief reports that 5 million Americans are unemployed. Hoover's promise that the Depression would end quickly begins to seem hollow to the many Americans struggling to support their families.
Congress and President Hoover approve The Star Spangled Banner, by Francis Scott Key, as the U.S. national anthem.
Ernest Goodpasture helps advance scientific understandings of infectious disease when he publishes “The Susceptibility of the Chorio-Allantoic Membrane of Chick Embryos to Infection with Fowl-Pox Virus.” By growing viruses in chicken eggs, he facilitates the production of crucial vaccines. Goodpasture's findings would earn him public praise and awards from the professional scientific community.
Britain leaves the gold standard, leading many in the U.S. to believe another stock market disaster is imminent. Over the next two months, hundreds of banks will close as Americans hastily close out their accounts.
Sometime between eight and 10pm Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Jr., infant son of famous aviator Charles Lindbergh, is kidnapped from him home. By 10:30, radio broadcasts are announcing the story to the nation.
Amelia Earhart is the first woman to fly alone across the Atlantic. News of her landing in Ireland brings Earhart instant international fame. She will later receive awards from the U.S. Congress, the French Government and from President Hoover.
Franklin Roosevelt accepts the Democratic nomination for President of the United States. In his speech at the Democratic National Convention, he states: "I pledge you, I pledge myself, to a new deal for the American people." His "new deal" would become the name of his strategy to bring America out of the Great Depression.
Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany. Hitler's rise to power is a critical turning point for Germany and for the world. He proposes eliminating traditional party politics, creating a unified one-party state and eradicating all opposition to the Nazi party. News of the power shift worries American leadership and political pundits, who believe Hitler's extremism could lead to a dark future.
New U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt gives his first radio "fireside chat," directly connecting to the American public. Radio allows Roosevelt to calmly and collectively explain his methods for social change, and gives a boost to his public standing. The radio also allows him to reach the American people while concealing his polio symptoms.
Beer containing up to 3.2 percent alcohol becomes legal after over 15 years of Prohibition. With news of the legalization, Anheuser-Busch sends their iconic Clydesdale horses to the White House to deliver a case of Budweiser, a media stunt that gets the public laughing. Most Americans enthusiastically greet the news of the repeal.
The World’s Fair opens in Chicago. Commemorating an era of technological advancement, it celebrates "A Century of Progress," and includes items such as the German airship Graf Zeppelin, Cadillac's newest limousine, and futuristic model homes.
Oklahoma engineer Karl Jansky publishes Electrical Disturbances Apparently of Extraterrestrial Origins after discovering radio waves emanating from the Milky Way that are causing mysterious radio interference and static. The article is highly publicized. Jansky would eventually be known as the "Father of Radio Astronomy."
In New York City's Madison Square Garden, thousands of Communists and Socialists battle in a violent rally. The incident generates news stories that feed into many people's growing uneasiness of Socialism and Communism.
A dust storm ravages several Midwestern and Western states including Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Kansas, and Colorado, forcing hundreds of families to leave their farms. These storms will plague the nation for the next nine years, causing devastating agricultural damage to America's prairie lands and leaving thousands homeless.
The first prisoners are delivered to Alcatraz Prison in San Francisco Bay, which houses mostly notorious bank robbers and murderers. The prison will become an iconic symbol of mystery, thrilling Americans with its stories of ghosts, murders and escapes.
The first around-the-world telephone conversation spans from New York to San Francisco, Indonesia, Holland, England and back to New York. The call marks a new era in technological advancement.
Flash Gordon, the popular science fiction radio show debuts, starring the fictional character Gale Gordon. The American public is immediately enthralled with the exciting story of the hero's adventures on the planet "Mongo." Similar adventure shows attract families to gather around the radio each night.
The Nazis revoke German citizenship for all Jews. With the 1936 Olympic games scheduled in Berlin, the German government tones down public anti-Jewish rhetoric over worries that international criticism of Hitler's government could lead organizers to transfer the games to another country.
As part of the job stimulus program of the Works Project Administration, Orson Welles directs an all-black cast of Macbeth for the Negro People's Theatre. Both the New York Times and the New York Daily News praise the production.
African American athlete Jesse Owens wins four gold medals at the Berlin Olympics in front of Adolf Hitler, who has recently begun his campaign for the "dominance" of the Aryan race. News of Owens' accomplishment sparks public interest, however, Owens continues to face racial inequality at home.
Record rainfall overflows the banks of the Ohio River, leaving 1 million Americans homeless, and $250 million in property damage. Radio stations around the nation broadcast news about the flood for weeks without commercial breaks. Most broadcasts are filled with messages for rescue crews, as many government agencies have no other means of communication.
Roosevelt is inaugurated for the second time as a result of one of the greatest landslide victories in American history. As Americans tune in to their radios from all over the country, FDR focuses his inaugural address on the poor "forgotten" American.
Another dust storm hits the West and Midwest. Economic recovery comes to a halt, sending the economy of the region into a second depression and local morale to a new low.
The Hindenburg, a German airship carrying passengers planning to attend the coronation festivities of Queen Elizabeth in London, explodes in Lakehurst, N.J., killing 36 people. The media there to cover the flight ends up recording the disaster live with newsreel, radio coverage, and photographs. CBS reporter Herbert Morrison's eyewitness "live" radio report is broadcast the next day. Orson Welles replayed the report for his cast as an example of the tone he wanted for War of the Worlds.
Amelia Earhart crashes off the coast of Howland Island in the Pacific Ocean in her attempt to become the first woman to fly around the world. The news media round-the-clock coverage of the event fascinates the American public and helps generate conspiracy theories about the cause of the mysterious crash.
Orson Welles voices protagonist Lamont Cranston on the radio show, The Shadow. Fans adore the show and identify Welles' voice with the wealthy, young crime fighter who has psychic powers.
By 1938, nearly 80% of American households own a radio.
Orson Welles airs his famous War of the Worlds broadcast on CBS radio, shocking the nation with his realistic sounding broadcast of a fictional alien invasion in Grovers Mill, New Jersey.
New York City holds the World’s Fair, drawing on the theme "The World of Tomorrow." The fair includes the first exhibition of television, ushering in a new era of media and entertainment. Americans visiting the exhibit are also awed by the General Motors Pavilion, a large glass exhibit and ride that serves as a model of the world in 20 years. Automated highways, suburbs, farms of artificially produced crops, and rooftop platforms for flying machines are included in this Utopic World. The theme is meant to provide an escape from the realities of the Great Depression and looming World War.
P.T. Barnum -- huckster, con man, promoter, entertainer and founder of "The Greatest Show on Earth".
The unbounded optimism of the Jazz Age and the shocking consequences when reality finally hit on October 29th, 1929.
The evocative stories of teenage hoboes crisscrossing America on trains during the Great Depression.
The staggering death tolls of the Civil War permanently altered the character of the republic and the psyche of the American people.
A new religion called spiritualism affected the nation in the era of Abraham Lincoln, P. T. Barnum and Frederick Douglass.
Before World War II, young Chinese Americans defied cultural tradition in San Francisco's Chinatown, previously closed to outsiders.
A daunting story of shipwreck, starvation, mutiny and cannibalism amongst a group left abandoned in the high Arctic.
This funny, probing program re-examines assumptions about American culture in the 1950s.